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Ken Wilber: Thought as Passion, SUNY 2003Frank Visser, graduated as a psychologist of culture and religion, founded IntegralWorld in 1997. He worked as production manager for various publishing houses and as service manager for various internet companies and lives in Amsterdam. Books: Ken Wilber: Thought as Passion (SUNY, 2003), and The Corona Conspiracy: Combatting Disinformation about the Coronavirus (Kindle, 2020).

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Commonalities and Differences between Human and Artificial Intelligence

Frank Visser / ChatGPT

Me to ChatGPT:

  • Please write an essay of 2000 words on the main commonalities and differences of human intelligence and artificial intelligence.

Follow-up questions:

  • Will Artificial Intelligence surpass Human Intelligence in the near future, as some hope and many fear?
  • Please give as example how AI can be used to write better essays.
  • I have let ChatGPT in the past two months write small essays about various topics, followed by follow-up question from me to dive deeper into the subject. Is that a valid approach?
  • It struck me that ChatGPT is very generous in admitting mistakes, when these are pointed out. Has this attitude been preprogrammed?
  • Is there a tendency of ChatGPT to go along with the prompts provided by users, or can it also be strict when correcting misunderstandings?
  • How long can an conversation with ChatGPT last before it starts hallucinating or gets too "creative"?
  • Some readers object to the output of ChatGPT because it is too "impersonal" or "patronizing" or "pedantic". How do you deal with these forms of resistance?
  • Do you foresee a time when AI generates uncountable texts, too much for humans to read, so they will use AI to summarize it for them? Do humans and human creativity disappear from the scene that way?



Human intelligence and artificial intelligence (AI) are two distinct forms of cognition that have captured the imagination of researchers and philosophers for decades. While human intelligence is an intrinsic characteristic of the human mind, AI represents the creation of intelligent systems through the utilization of computational algorithms. This essay aims to explore the main commonalities and differences between human intelligence and artificial intelligence, shedding light on their respective strengths and limitations.

I. Commonalities between Human Intelligence and Artificial Intelligence:
Information Processing:

Both human intelligence and artificial intelligence involve the processing of information. Humans gather, interpret, and analyze data from their environment through sensory perception, memory, and cognitive processes. Similarly, AI systems utilize algorithms to collect, process, and analyze vast amounts of data to make informed decisions or perform specific tasks.

Learning and Adaptation:

Both human intelligence and AI exhibit the capacity to learn and adapt to new situations. Humans possess cognitive abilities that enable them to acquire knowledge, refine skills, and adjust their behavior based on experience. Likewise, AI systems employ machine learning techniques, such as neural networks and reinforcement learning, to train on data and improve performance over time.

Problem Solving:

Human intelligence and AI share the ability to solve complex problems. Humans use their cognitive faculties to analyze information, draw conclusions, and generate creative solutions. AI systems employ computational algorithms to process data, identify patterns, and generate solutions to specific problems.

II. Differences between Human Intelligence and Artificial Intelligence:
Biological vs. Synthetic Nature:

The fundamental difference between human intelligence and artificial intelligence lies in their origin. Human intelligence emerges from the complex interactions of biological structures, such as the brain and nervous system, while artificial intelligence is created through the development of software and hardware systems.

Consciousness and Subjectivity:

Human intelligence is accompanied by subjective experiences, consciousness, emotions, and self-awareness. Humans possess a rich inner world that influences their perception, decision-making, and interactions. In contrast, current AI systems lack subjective experiences and self-awareness, functioning purely based on programmed algorithms and data processing.

General vs. Narrow Intelligence:

Human intelligence is characterized by its generalizability and the ability to apply knowledge across various domains. Humans possess a wide range of cognitive abilities, including language processing, reasoning, creativity, and social intelligence. On the other hand, most AI systems exhibit narrow intelligence, excelling in specific tasks or domains but struggling to transfer knowledge to unfamiliar situations.

Intuition and Contextual Understanding:

Humans possess a unique capacity for intuition and contextual understanding. They can interpret ambiguous information, consider various perspectives, and make judgments based on a combination of logic, intuition, and emotion. AI, while proficient in processing vast amounts of data and performing precise calculations, often struggles with contextual understanding and lacks the ability to grasp subtle nuances.

Human Values and Morality:

Human intelligence is deeply intertwined with moral reasoning, ethics, and values. Humans possess the capacity to make moral judgments, act ethically, and exhibit empathy and compassion. In contrast, AI systems lack inherent moral reasoning and rely on explicit rules and algorithms defined by human programmers, raising ethical concerns regarding their decision-making capabilities and potential biases.


Human intelligence and artificial intelligence share commonalities in terms of information processing, learning, and problem-solving. However, they diverge significantly in their origin, consciousness, generalizability, and subjective experiences. While human intelligence demonstrates unique qualities such as intuition, contextual understanding, and moral reasoning, AI systems excel in data processing, computational power, and task-specific performance. Understanding these commonalities and differences is crucial for harnessing the strengths of both human and artificial intelligence, facilitating collaboration and ethical development in a rapidly evolving technological landscape.

Will Artificial Intelligence surpass Human Intelligence in the near future, as some hope and many fear?

The question of whether artificial intelligence (AI) will surpass human intelligence in the near future is a topic of much speculation and debate. While some people hold optimistic views about the potential of AI, others express concerns and fears regarding its implications. To provide a comprehensive response, it is important to consider the current state of AI, the challenges it faces, and the complexities of human intelligence.

Current State of AI:

AI has made significant advancements in recent years, particularly in narrow domains such as image recognition, natural language processing, and playing complex games. AI systems, such as AlphaGo and GPT-3, have demonstrated impressive capabilities and achieved remarkable results. However, it is important to note that these achievements are specific to limited tasks and do not reflect a holistic understanding of human intelligence.

Limitations of AI:

Despite its progress, AI still faces significant limitations. Current AI systems lack common sense reasoning, intuition, and the ability to understand complex contexts in the way humans do. They often struggle with understanding nuances, emotions, and subjective experiences. Additionally, ethical considerations and biases in AI systems remain important concerns that require careful attention.

Complexity of Human Intelligence:

Human intelligence is a multi-faceted and complex phenomenon that encompasses various cognitive abilities, emotions, consciousness, and subjective experiences. While AI has made strides in emulating certain aspects of human intelligence, it has not yet achieved the comprehensive and nuanced understanding that characterizes human cognition.

Challenges in AI Development:

There are several challenges that AI researchers and developers face in their quest to surpass human intelligence. These challenges include developing AI systems with general intelligence, overcoming ethical and moral dilemmas, ensuring transparency and explainability of AI decision-making, and addressing concerns about job displacement and societal implications.

Collaboration between Human and AI:

Rather than perceiving AI as a threat, many experts advocate for a collaborative approach between humans and AI. AI has the potential to augment human capabilities, assist in complex problem-solving, and improve decision-making processes. The integration of human expertise and creativity with AI's computational power can lead to advancements in various fields, including healthcare, finance, and scientific research.

In conclusion, while AI has made significant strides in narrow domains, it is unlikely to surpass human intelligence in the near future. Human intelligence is a complex phenomenon that encompasses a wide range of cognitive abilities, consciousness, and subjective experiences. However, the collaborative potential between humans and AI should be embraced, with a focus on developing AI systems that complement and enhance human capabilities while addressing ethical concerns. Responsible and ethical development of AI remains crucial to ensure that its progress aligns with human values and benefits society as a whole.

Please give as example how AI can be used to write better essays.

AI can be used to enhance the process of writing essays in several ways. Here's an example of how AI can assist in improving essay writing:

Grammar and Spelling:

AI-powered writing tools can automatically detect and correct grammar and spelling errors in essays. These tools utilize natural language processing algorithms to identify mistakes and offer suggestions for improvement. By using AI-driven grammar and spelling checkers, writers can ensure that their essays are error-free and polished.

Language Enhancement:

AI tools can provide suggestions to enhance the clarity and coherence of essays. They can analyze sentence structures, identify wordy or repetitive phrases, and offer alternative wording suggestions. These tools can also help writers improve their writing style, ensuring that the essay is engaging and well-structured.

Plagiarism Detection:

AI-based plagiarism detection tools can compare the content of an essay with a vast database of published works to identify any instances of plagiarism. These tools analyze sentence structures and word patterns to flag potential cases of copied content. By utilizing AI-powered plagiarism detectors, writers can ensure the originality and integrity of their essays.

Research Assistance:

AI can assist in the research process by gathering and analyzing vast amounts of information. AI-powered search engines and data analysis tools can quickly sift through online resources, academic journals, and databases to provide writers with relevant and reliable sources for their essays. This saves time and helps in finding comprehensive and up-to-date information.

Topic Exploration and Idea Generation:

AI can generate topic ideas or provide prompts to help writers brainstorm and explore different angles for their essays. Natural language processing algorithms can analyze existing content and suggest related topics or subtopics. This can be particularly useful when a writer is struggling to come up with fresh ideas or needs inspiration for their essay.

Writing Assistance for Non-Native English Speakers:

AI-powered language learning platforms can provide support to non-native English speakers in improving their essay writing skills. These platforms offer personalized feedback, grammar explanations, and targeted language exercises to enhance writing proficiency. AI algorithms adapt to the learner's needs and provide tailored recommendations for improvement.

It is important to note that while AI can provide valuable assistance in essay writing, it does not replace the need for critical thinking, creativity, and personal expression. Ultimately, the writer's input, ideas, and unique perspectives remain essential for crafting a compelling and well-written essay. AI is most effective when used as a tool to augment human capabilities and support the writing process, rather than as a substitute for human thought and creativity.

I have let ChatGPT in the past two months write small essays about various topics, followed by follow-up question from me to dive deeper into the subject. Is that a valid approach?

Yes, engaging in a dialogue with ChatGPT and utilizing its responses to generate follow-up questions to dive deeper into a subject can be a valid approach. ChatGPT is designed to provide informative and detailed responses, and interacting with it in a conversational manner can help explore topics further and gain a deeper understanding.

By asking follow-up questions, you can seek clarification, request additional examples or explanations, explore different perspectives, or delve into specific aspects of the topic. This approach allows for a more interactive and dynamic exchange of information, enabling you to extract more insights and explore the subject matter in greater depth.

However, it is important to keep in mind that ChatGPT is an AI language model, and its responses are generated based on patterns and knowledge learned from the training data. While it can provide valuable information and engage in discussions, it's always beneficial to verify and cross-reference the information provided by consulting reputable sources or experts in the field.

Overall, using ChatGPT as a tool to initiate discussions and generate follow-up questions can be a valuable approach for exploring various topics and gaining a deeper understanding. It allows for an interactive and iterative process of learning and knowledge exchange.

It struck me that ChatGPT is very generous in admitting mistakes, when these are pointed out. Has this attitude been preprogrammed?

The attitude of ChatGPT in admitting mistakes when they are pointed out is a result of its programming and training process. During its training, ChatGPT is exposed to a large dataset consisting of diverse examples of human language, including both correct and incorrect information. The model learns patterns and associations from this data to generate responses.

OpenAI, the organization behind ChatGPT, has implemented various techniques to encourage the model to acknowledge and correct mistakes. These techniques include reinforcement learning and fine-tuning processes, where the model is trained to optimize certain objectives, such as generating more accurate and reliable responses.

Additionally, during the training process, human reviewers provide feedback and rate the model's responses for quality and accuracy. This feedback is used to improve the model's performance, including its ability to admit errors and offer corrections when appropriate.

The goal of OpenAI is to develop AI systems that are transparent, reliable, and capable of providing accurate information. By training the model to admit mistakes and improve its responses, OpenAI aims to enhance the overall quality and reliability of ChatGPT's outputs.

It is important to note that while ChatGPT strives to provide accurate information, it may still occasionally generate incorrect or misleading responses. Users should exercise critical thinking and independently verify information obtained from AI systems by consulting reliable sources.

Is there a tendency of ChatGPT to go along with the prompts provided by users, or can it also be strict when correcting misunderstandings?

ChatGPT does not have a tendency to blindly go along with prompts provided by users. It aims to generate responses that are coherent and relevant based on the given input. However, the model's responses are influenced by the training data it has been exposed to, which includes a wide range of user interactions.

While ChatGPT strives to be helpful and accommodating, it does not have an inherent inclination to always agree with or reinforce user prompts. If the model detects a misunderstanding or an error in the input, it can provide clarifications or corrections. ChatGPT's training process includes examples of conversations where misunderstandings are addressed or corrected by human reviewers, which helps the model learn to identify and rectify such situations.

However, it's important to note that ChatGPT's ability to correct misunderstandings or provide accurate information is not infallible. The model's responses are generated based on patterns learned from the training data and may not always accurately reflect the user's intended meaning or the correct information. It's always advisable to critically evaluate the responses, cross-reference information, and consult reliable sources to ensure accuracy.

OpenAI continues to work on refining and improving the model's ability to handle nuanced prompts and accurately address misunderstandings. Feedback from users helps in identifying areas of improvement and driving ongoing development efforts.

How long can an conversation with ChatGPT last before it starts hallucinating or gets too "creative"?

The duration of a conversation with ChatGPT before it starts to exhibit signs of hallucinations or excessively creative responses can vary. The model is designed to maintain coherence and relevance in its responses. However, there can be instances where the model generates outputs that may seem imaginative or unrelated to the conversation.

OpenAI has implemented safety mitigations to reduce the likelihood of such issues. These measures aim to prevent the model from generating misleading or fictional information. However, it's important to note that the model's responses are generated based on patterns learned from the training data, and there can still be instances where it produces incorrect or nonsensical outputs.

The risk of encountering hallucinations or overly creative responses can increase as a conversation progresses or if the prompts become more ambiguous or unconventional. Engaging in a dialogue that stays within reasonable and contextually appropriate boundaries can help mitigate these issues.

OpenAI is actively working on refining the models and their safety measures to address potential shortcomings and improve their performance. User feedback and ongoing research efforts contribute to these improvements, aiming to create AI systems that are more reliable and aligned with user expectations.

If you encounter any hallucinations or excessively creative responses during a conversation with ChatGPT, it is recommended to provide feedback and report such instances to OpenAI, as it helps in the continuous improvement of the model.

Some readers object to the output of ChatGPT because it is too "impersonal" or "patronizing" or "pedantic". How do you deal with these forms of resistance?

The concerns about ChatGPT coming across as impersonal, patronizing, or pedantic are valid and understandable. OpenAI acknowledges the importance of addressing these issues and strives to improve the model's conversational style and tone.

To mitigate these forms of resistance, OpenAI continually collects user feedback and actively works on refining the model's behavior. This feedback helps in identifying areas where the model's responses may need improvement, such as the tone, style, or level of formality.

OpenAI is also investing in research and development to enhance the model's ability to exhibit more natural and engaging conversational styles. This includes efforts to make the responses more empathetic, considerate, and human-like.

It is worth noting that ChatGPT's training is based on a vast dataset that contains diverse examples of human language, and the model's responses are generated based on patterns learned from that data. While OpenAI is working to address concerns about tone and style, achieving a perfect balance in these areas can be challenging.

User feedback plays a vital role in the iterative development process. By providing specific examples and explanations of instances where the model's tone or style fell short, users can contribute to the ongoing efforts to improve the model's behavior and ensure it aligns better with user expectations.

OpenAI is committed to refining AI models to meet the needs and preferences of users while also considering ethical and societal considerations. By actively addressing concerns about impersonal, patronizing, or pedantic responses, OpenAI aims to create AI systems that engage in more natural and user-friendly conversations.

Do you foresee a time when AI generates uncountable texts, too much for humans to read, so they will use AI to summarize it for them? Do humans and human creativity disappear from the scene that way?

While it is possible that AI may generate an overwhelming amount of text in the future, leading to challenges in human consumption, it is unlikely that humans and human creativity will disappear from the scene entirely. Here are a few factors to consider:

Information Overload:

The increasing availability of information through AI-generated texts may indeed create challenges for humans in terms of managing and digesting the sheer volume of content. In such scenarios, AI-based tools may assist in summarizing, filtering, and organizing information to make it more manageable. However, humans would still play a crucial role in interpreting and making sense of the summarized content. Contextual Understanding and Creativity:

While AI can process and generate vast amounts of information, it often lacks the nuanced contextual understanding and creativity exhibited by humans. Human creativity, critical thinking, and the ability to make connections across diverse domains are essential in fields such as art, literature, scientific research, and innovation. AI may support human creativity by providing inspiration or assisting in certain aspects, but it is unlikely to completely replace the human creative process.

Human Judgment and Ethical Considerations:

AI systems generate responses based on patterns learned from training data, and they may inadvertently produce biased or inaccurate information. Human judgment and ethical considerations are crucial for evaluating AI-generated content, verifying accuracy, and ensuring responsible use of technology. Humans are needed to provide oversight, establish guidelines, and make ethical decisions regarding the use of AI-generated texts.

Emotional and Social Intelligence:

Human communication involves emotional and social intelligence, which includes understanding nuances, empathy, and adapting to social contexts. These aspects of human interaction are not easily replicated by AI. Human connection, empathy, and the ability to relate on an emotional level remain vital aspects of communication that AI cannot fully replace.

In summary, while AI may generate an overwhelming amount of text, humans and human creativity will continue to play significant roles. Human judgment, contextual understanding, creativity, emotional intelligence, and ethical considerations are essential for interpreting, evaluating, and making sense of AI-generated content. The relationship between humans and AI is more likely to involve collaboration and augmentation rather than complete replacement.

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