Integral World: Exploring Theories of Everything
An independent forum for a critical discussion of the integral philosophy of Ken Wilber
Ken Wilber: Thought as Passion, SUNY 2003Frank Visser, graduated as a psychologist of culture and religion, founded IntegralWorld in 1997. He worked as production manager for various publishing houses and as service manager for various internet companies and lives in Amsterdam. Books: Ken Wilber: Thought as Passion (SUNY, 2003), and The Corona Conspiracy: Combatting Disinformation about the Coronavirus (Kindle, 2020).

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The Race to Unravel the Genome of SARS-CoV-2

A Remarkable Scientific Endeavor

Frank Visser / ChatGPT

Me to ChatGPT:

  • How was the genome of SARS-CoV-2 found in such a short timespan in early 2020? Please explain the technical steps in an essay for interested laymen.

Follow-up questions

  • To which family of viruses does SARS-CoV-2 belong within the virosphere? What is characteristicv of this family of viruses compared to other coronaviruses?
  • Can you be more specific? How is this large subfamily of Orthocoronavirinae viruses populated?
  • I was referring to the sarbecovirus genus, toch which this SARS variant belongs. What characterizes this genus?
  • How is SARS-CoV-2 genetically similar or different from the SARS-CoV virus?
  • Why did you not mention the Furin Cleavage Site, a string of 12 nuclotides, which is found in SARS-CoV-2 but not in SARS-CoV?
  • So how many different coronaviruses are known today?
  • How did viruses evolve actually? What is the current scientific consensus?
  • What makes bats so special that the viruses they contain sometimes jump to humans?



The emergence of the novel coronavirus, SARS-CoV-2, in late 2019 marked the beginning of a global health crisis. The rapid identification of the virus and decoding its genetic information, or genome, played a pivotal role in understanding the virus, developing diagnostics, and designing potential treatments and vaccines. In this essay, we will explore the technical steps involved in uncovering the genome of SARS-CoV-2 in early 2020, highlighting the collaborative efforts of scientists around the world.

Step 1: Virus Isolation and Sample Collection:

The first crucial step in deciphering the SARS-CoV-2 genome was the isolation of the virus itself. In the early stages of the outbreak, samples were collected from individuals exhibiting symptoms consistent with COVID-19. These samples included respiratory secretions, such as nasopharyngeal or throat swabs, which contained the virus.

Step 2: Viral RNA Extraction:

Once the samples were collected, scientists focused on extracting the viral RNA. RNA is the genetic material of the coronavirus, and isolating it was crucial for further analysis. To accomplish this, scientists employed various extraction methods, such as chemical and mechanical processes, to separate the viral RNA from other components present in the samples.

Step 3: Whole-Genome Sequencing:

Whole-genome sequencing refers to the process of determining the complete genetic blueprint of an organism, in this case, the SARS-CoV-2 virus. The sequencing process involves reading the order of nucleotide bases that make up the RNA genome. There are multiple techniques available for sequencing, but during the initial outbreak, a widely used method was next-generation sequencing (NGS).

Step 4: Library Preparation:

Library preparation involves converting the extracted RNA into a form suitable for sequencing. This process includes the fragmentation of the RNA into smaller pieces and the addition of specific adapters that enable the attachment of the RNA to the sequencing instrument. This step ensures that the RNA is prepared in a manner that allows for accurate and efficient sequencing.

Step 5: Sequencing and Data Generation:

Once the libraries are prepared, they are loaded onto the sequencing instrument, where the actual sequencing process takes place. The instrument reads the order of the nucleotide bases present in the RNA fragments, generating vast amounts of raw sequencing data. The data generated contains millions of short sequences, known as reads, that need to be analyzed and assembled to reconstruct the full genome.

Step 6: Data Analysis and Genome Assembly:

The analysis of the raw sequencing data is a complex task that requires advanced computational tools and bioinformatics expertise. Initially, the generated short reads are compared to reference genomes of closely related viruses, such as SARS-CoV and MERS-CoV, to identify similarities and differences. This step helps researchers align the reads and establish a framework for assembling the SARS-CoV-2 genome.

Step 7: Genome Annotation:

Genome annotation involves identifying and labeling the different functional elements within the genome, such as genes and regulatory sequences. By comparing the SARS-CoV-2 genome with known coronaviruses, scientists can infer the potential functions of different genes and predict how the virus may interact with host cells. This information is vital for understanding the virus's behavior and designing targeted interventions.

Step 8: Global Collaboration:

Throughout the entire process, international collaboration and data sharing were instrumental. Scientists from around the world, including researchers from China, Germany, the United States, and other countries, worked together to quickly decode the genome of SARS-CoV-2. They shared data, protocols, and findings openly, enabling rapid progress and validation of results.


The successful sequencing of the SARS-CoV-2 genome in early 2020 was a remarkable scientific achievement driven by global collaboration, advanced sequencing technologies, and bioinformatics expertise. Through the steps of virus isolation, RNA extraction, whole-genome sequencing, library preparation, data analysis, and genome annotation, scientists were able to decode the genetic blueprint of the virus. This breakthrough provided crucial insights into the virus's characteristics, facilitated the development of diagnostic tests, and served as a foundation for the design of treatments and vaccines. The rapid identification and sharing of the genome exemplified the power of global scientific cooperation and showcased the potential of genomics in combating infectious diseases.

To which family of viruses does SARS-CoV-2 belong within the virosphere? What is characteristicv of this family of viruses compared to other coronaviruses?

SARS-CoV-2 belongs to the family Coronaviridae within the virosphere. This family is further classified into the subfamily Orthocoronavirinae, which includes several other human coronaviruses such as SARS-CoV (causing Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome) and MERS-CoV (causing Middle East Respiratory Syndrome).

Characteristics of the Coronaviridae family include:

Virion Structure:

Coronaviruses are enveloped viruses, meaning they possess a lipid membrane surrounding their genetic material. These viruses have a distinctive appearance with club-shaped spike proteins protruding from the envelope, giving them a crown-like or "corona" appearance under electron microscopy.

Large Genome:

Coronaviruses have the largest known RNA genomes among all known RNA viruses. The genome of SARS-CoV-2, for instance, is approximately 30,000 bases long. This large genome enables the virus to encode a range of proteins that contribute to its replication, host interactions, and pathogenicity.

Positive-Sense RNA:

The genetic material of coronaviruses consists of a single-stranded positive-sense RNA. This means that the RNA genome can directly serve as messenger RNA (mRNA) and be translated by the host cell's machinery to produce viral proteins.

Genetic Diversity:

The Coronaviridae family displays genetic diversity, and coronaviruses are known to infect a wide range of animals, including mammals and birds. Some coronaviruses have zoonotic potential, meaning they can cross the species barrier and infect humans, as observed with SARS-CoV-2, SARS-CoV, and MERS-CoV.

Respiratory Infections:

Many coronaviruses primarily target the respiratory tract, causing respiratory infections in humans. These infections can range from mild common cold-like symptoms to severe respiratory illnesses, as seen in the case of SARS and MERS.

It is worth noting that while SARS-CoV-2 shares similarities with other coronaviruses in its family, it also possesses distinct genetic characteristics and features that set it apart. Understanding these unique attributes is essential for studying the virus, developing effective diagnostics, therapeutics, and vaccines, and formulating appropriate public health measures.

Can you be more specific? How is this large subfamily of Orthocoronavirinae viruses populated?

I apologize for the confusion. To clarify, the subfamily Orthocoronavirinae within the family Coronaviridae is populated by a wide range of viruses that primarily infect mammals, including humans. The natural reservoirs or hosts of these viruses are typically bats, but they can also be found in other animals, such as camels, civets, and rodents.

Bats are considered the natural reservoirs for many coronaviruses, including several members of the Orthocoronavirinae subfamily. These viruses can establish a long-term, asymptomatic infection in bats, allowing them to persist in bat populations without causing severe disease. Bats play a crucial role in the ecology and evolution of coronaviruses and serve as a source for spillover events, where the viruses can cross the species barrier and infect other animals, including humans.

It is believed that the transmission of coronaviruses from bats to humans often involves intermediate hosts. For example, in the case of SARS-CoV-2, it is suspected that an intermediate animal host played a role in transmitting the virus from bats to humans, although the specific intermediate host for SARS-CoV-2 has not been definitively identified.

The diversity of coronaviruses within the Orthocoronavirinae subfamily is thought to arise through a combination of genetic mutations and recombination events. These processes contribute to the emergence of new coronaviruses with the potential to infect different hosts and cause diseases of varying severity.

Understanding the natural reservoirs and transmission dynamics of coronaviruses is crucial for surveillance, prevention, and control efforts. By studying the population dynamics and evolution of Orthocoronavirinae viruses, scientists can gain insights into the emergence and spread of novel coronaviruses, helping to inform public health strategies and mitigate future outbreaks.

I was referring to the sarbecovirus genus, toch which this SARS variant belongs. What characterizes this genus?

I apologize for the misunderstanding. The SARS-CoV-2 virus, responsible for the COVID-19 pandemic, belongs to the genus Sarbecovirus within the subfamily Orthocoronavirinae of the family Coronaviridae. The Sarbecovirus genus is characterized by several distinct features:

Spike Protein:

Sarbecoviruses possess a spike protein on their viral surface that plays a crucial role in viral entry into host cells. This spike protein facilitates binding to specific receptors on the host cell surface, allowing the virus to gain entry and initiate infection. The spike protein of Sarbecoviruses has received significant attention due to its role in viral infectivity and as a target for vaccine development and therapeutics.

Genetic Relatedness:

Sarbecoviruses are genetically related and share a common ancestor. This genus includes several coronaviruses, such as SARS-CoV (causing Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome) and the closely related SARS-CoV-2. The genetic similarity between these viruses suggests a close evolutionary relationship and shared genetic characteristics.

Zoonotic Potential:

Sarbecoviruses have demonstrated the ability to cross the species barrier and infect different hosts. Bats are considered the natural reservoir for Sarbecoviruses, as they carry a diverse array of these viruses. Spillover events, where the virus is transmitted from bats to other animals, including humans, can occur, leading to outbreaks and epidemics.

Respiratory Infections:

Sarbecoviruses primarily target the respiratory system, causing respiratory infections in their hosts. Both SARS-CoV and SARS-CoV-2 are known to cause severe respiratory illnesses in humans, ranging from mild to severe symptoms, with the potential for significant morbidity and mortality.

Pandemic Potential:

Sarbecoviruses have demonstrated pandemic potential due to their ability to efficiently transmit from person to person. The SARS-CoV-2 pandemic is a prime example of the rapid global spread and impact that can be caused by a Sarbecovirus. The high transmissibility of these viruses poses significant challenges for public health systems and requires robust containment measures.

Studying the characteristics of the Sarbecovirus genus, including its genetic makeup, host range, and transmission dynamics, is crucial for understanding the behavior and potential risks associated with SARS-related coronaviruses. This knowledge is essential for developing effective strategies to prevent and control future outbreaks caused by Sarbecoviruses.

How is SARS-CoV-2 genetically similar or different from the SARS-CoV virus?

SARS-CoV-2, the virus responsible for the COVID-19 pandemic, and SARS-CoV, the virus causing Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome (SARS), are genetically similar but also exhibit notable differences. Here are some key points of comparison:

Genetic Relationship: SARS-CoV-2 and SARS-CoV are both members of the Sarbecovirus genus within the Betacoronavirus subfamily of the Coronaviridae family. They share a high degree of genetic similarity, with approximately 79% of their genomes being identical.

Spike Protein:

The spike protein of both viruses plays a crucial role in viral entry into host cells. However, there are differences in the spike proteins of SARS-CoV-2 and SARS-CoV. SARS-CoV-2 has a specific mutation in its spike protein known as the receptor-binding domain (RBD), which allows it to efficiently bind to the ACE2 receptor on human cells, facilitating its high transmissibility. SARS-CoV, on the other hand, has a different RBD sequence and utilizes a different receptor, known as ACE2, for cell entry.

Infectivity and Transmission:

SARS-CoV-2 exhibits higher infectivity and transmissibility compared to SARS-CoV. The rapid spread of SARS-CoV-2 globally is primarily due to its efficient human-to-human transmission, facilitated by the ability to shed the virus during the asymptomatic and presymptomatic stages of infection. SARS-CoV had a relatively lower reproductive number (R0), indicating that it was less contagious and had a more limited spread.

Disease Severity:

SARS-CoV-2 and SARS-CoV cause similar respiratory symptoms, but SARS-CoV was associated with a higher case fatality rate (around 10%) compared to SARS-CoV-2 (around 2-3%). However, the overall impact of SARS-CoV-2 has been significantly higher due to its widespread global transmission and the larger number of affected individuals.

Genetic Stability:

Both viruses have shown relatively low genetic variation within their respective outbreaks. However, SARS-CoV-2 has demonstrated a higher mutation rate compared to SARS-CoV. This higher mutation rate has resulted in the emergence of different variants of concern, such as the Alpha, Beta, Gamma, and Delta variants, which have varying degrees of increased transmissibility or potential evasion of immune responses.

Understanding the similarities and differences between SARS-CoV-2 and SARS-CoV is crucial for informing public health measures, developing diagnostics, therapeutics, and vaccines, and predicting the behavior of SARS-related coronaviruses.

Why did you not mention the Furin Cleavage Site, a string of 12 nuclotides, which is found in SARS-CoV-2 but not in SARS-CoV?

Apologies for not including the specific mention of the Furin Cleavage Site in my previous response. You are correct that one of the notable genetic differences between SARS-CoV-2 and SARS-CoV is the presence of a Furin Cleavage Site in the spike protein of SARS-CoV-2.

The Furin Cleavage Site is a sequence of amino acids that is recognized and cleaved by a cellular enzyme called Furin. This site is found within the spike protein of SARS-CoV-2, specifically at the junction of the S1 and S2 subunits of the protein. The presence of this Furin Cleavage Site allows for efficient priming and activation of the spike protein, enhancing its ability to facilitate viral entry into host cells.

The Furin Cleavage Site in SARS-CoV-2 is not present in the SARS-CoV virus, which is one of the key genetic distinctions between the two viruses. This unique feature has raised scientific interest and debate regarding its potential implications for the transmissibility and pathogenicity of SARS-CoV-2 compared to SARS-CoV.

The presence of the Furin Cleavage Site has been hypothesized to contribute to the enhanced infectivity and transmission of SARS-CoV-2 by facilitating viral entry into host cells and potentially expanding its tropism to different cell types. However, it is important to note that the exact role and significance of the Furin Cleavage Site in the biology and pathogenicity of SARS-CoV-2 are still under investigation, and further research is needed to fully understand its functional implications.

Thank you for bringing attention to this important genetic distinction between SARS-CoV-2 and SARS-CoV.

So how many different coronaviruses are known today?

As of my knowledge cutoff in September 2021, there are numerous coronaviruses that have been identified. The family Coronaviridae is composed of four genera: Alphacoronavirus, Betacoronavirus, Gammacoronavirus, and Deltacoronavirus. Among these, the Betacoronavirus genus can be further subdivided into four lineages or subgenera: A, B, C, and D.

In humans, several coronaviruses have been identified. These include:


Human coronavirus 229E (HCoV-229E)
Human coronavirus NL63 (HCoV-NL63)


Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome coronavirus (SARS-CoV)
Middle East Respiratory Syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV)
SARS-CoV-2, which causes COVID-19

Apart from these human coronaviruses, there are also numerous coronaviruses that primarily infect animals. Some of these animal coronaviruses have the potential to infect humans and cause zoonotic outbreaks, as observed with SARS-CoV and MERS-CoV.

In bats alone, which are considered natural reservoirs for many coronaviruses, a large diversity of coronaviruses has been discovered. These include various strains within the Alphacoronavirus and Betacoronavirus genera, including closely related relatives of SARS-CoV and SARS-CoV-2.

It is important to note that the number of known coronaviruses may continue to evolve as new viruses are discovered through ongoing surveillance efforts and research. Regular monitoring and characterization of coronaviruses are essential for preparedness and response to potential outbreaks and emerging infectious diseases.

I am confused. Are SARS-CoV-2 and SARS-CoV both using the ACE2 cell receptor or not, as you stated?

I apologize for the confusion caused by my previous response. Both SARS-CoV and SARS-CoV-2 use the ACE2 (Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2) receptor for cell entry. This receptor is expressed on the surface of certain human cells, particularly in the respiratory tract.

SARS-CoV, the virus responsible for the 2002-2003 SARS outbreak, and SARS-CoV-2, the virus causing the ongoing COVID-19 pandemic, share a similar mechanism of cell entry. The spike protein on the surface of these viruses binds to the ACE2 receptor on human cells, initiating the process of viral entry into host cells.

The binding affinity and interaction between the spike protein and the ACE2 receptor, however, differ between SARS-CoV and SARS-CoV-2. The spike protein of SARS-CoV-2 has a higher binding affinity to ACE2 compared to the spike protein of SARS-CoV. This higher affinity contributes to the increased transmissibility of SARS-CoV-2.

I apologize for any confusion caused by the incorrect statement in my previous response. Thank you for pointing out the error, and I appreciate your understanding.

I am just curious: what are the smalles viruses and what the largests viruses known?

The size of viruses can vary significantly, with some being among the smallest infectious agents known to exist, while others are relatively large. Here are examples of the smallest and largest known viruses:

Smallest Viruses:

Picornaviruses: Picornaviruses, such as poliovirus and rhinovirus, are among the smallest viruses. They have an average diameter of around 22-30 nanometers (nm), which is roughly 100 times smaller than a typical bacterium.

Parvoviruses: Parvoviruses, including the human parvovirus B19, are also considered small viruses. They have a diameter of approximately 18-26 nm.

Circoviruses: Circoviruses, such as porcine circovirus, are another example of small viruses, measuring about 17-20 nm in diameter.

It's worth noting that these sizes are approximate, as the dimensions of viruses can vary even within the same viral family.

Largest Viruses:

Pandoraviruses: Pandoraviruses are among the largest known viruses. They have an average size of about 1 micrometer (µm) in length, making them visible under a light microscope. These viruses have a complex structure and a genome that is significantly larger than many other viruses.

Mimivirus: Mimivirus was one of the first giant viruses discovered and is known for its large size. It has a diameter of approximately 400 nm, making it visible under an ordinary light microscope. Mimiviruses have complex genomes and can infect amoebas.

Pithovirus: Pithovirus is another example of a giant virus. It has a length of about 1.5 µm and was discovered in Siberian permafrost. Like other giant viruses, Pithovirus has a large genome and complex structure.

It's important to note that the discovery of large viruses has challenged the traditional definition of viruses, blurring the line between viruses and other forms of life due to their size and complexity.

These examples represent some extremes in virus sizes, but there is a wide range of sizes across different viral families.

How did viruses evolve actually? What is the current scientific consensus?

The evolution of viruses is a complex and fascinating field of study, and our understanding of it continues to evolve as new research emerges. While there are ongoing debates and ongoing research, the current scientific consensus on virus evolution can be summarized as follows:

Origin of Viruses:

There are several theories regarding the origin of viruses. One prominent theory suggests that viruses may have evolved from genetic elements such as plasmids or transposons, which are mobile genetic elements found within cells. Another hypothesis proposes that viruses may have originated from ancient, self-replicating molecules that existed before the emergence of cellular life.

Evolutionary Processes:

Viruses are thought to evolve through several mechanisms:

a. Mutation: Like all living organisms, viruses undergo genetic mutations, which introduce variations in their genetic material over time. These mutations can result in changes in viral traits, including antigenicity, virulence, or host range.

b. Genetic Recombination: Viruses can undergo genetic recombination when they infect the same host cell concurrently or sequentially. This process involves the exchange of genetic material between different virus strains or even different virus species, potentially leading to the emergence of new viral variants.

c. Horizontal Gene Transfer: Some viruses can acquire genes from their hosts or other organisms through horizontal gene transfer. This process allows viruses to incorporate host genes into their genomes, potentially influencing their evolution and adapting to new host environments.

Coevolution with Hosts:

Viruses and their hosts are engaged in a coevolutionary arms race. Host organisms develop defense mechanisms, such as the immune system, to combat viral infections, while viruses evolve strategies to evade or counteract host defenses. This dynamic interplay between viruses and hosts drives their ongoing evolution.

Host Switching and Zoonotic Events: Viruses can jump between different host species through a process known as host switching or cross-species transmission. This can occur when a virus adapts to infect a new host species, potentially leading to outbreaks or pandemics. Zoonotic events, where viruses transmit from animals to humans, have been responsible for several viral epidemics and pandemics, including SARS, MERS, and COVID-19.

It is important to note that virus evolution can vary widely depending on the specific characteristics of each virus and its interactions with hosts. Ongoing research and advancements in sequencing technologies are providing deeper insights into the evolutionary dynamics of viruses.

While the scientific community generally agrees on these fundamental principles, specific details and mechanisms of virus evolution continue to be an active area of research, with new discoveries further expanding our understanding of their evolutionary history.

What makes bats so special that the viruses they contain sometimes jump to humans?

Bats are considered special in the context of viral transmission for several reasons:

Viral Diversity:

Bats are known to harbor a remarkably diverse range of viruses. They have been identified as natural reservoirs for various types of viruses, including coronaviruses, filoviruses (e.g., Ebola), henipaviruses (e.g., Nipah), and lyssaviruses (e.g., Rabies). The coexistence of multiple viruses in bats increases the likelihood of viral spillover events where viruses cross the species barrier and infect humans or other animals.

Flight and Roosting Behavior:

Bats are the only mammals capable of sustained flight. Their unique physiology and behavior, such as long-distance migration and communal roosting, allow them to come into contact with diverse ecosystems and different animal species. This creates opportunities for viruses to be transmitted between bats, other animals, and potentially humans.

Immune System Adaptations:

Bats have evolved certain immune system adaptations that enable them to tolerate and coexist with a wide range of viruses. Their immune response to viral infections is distinct and characterized by a fine balance between antiviral defenses and controlled inflammation. This unique immune system adaptation in bats may contribute to their ability to carry and transmit viruses without suffering severe disease symptoms.

Longevity and Metabolic Rate:

Bats tend to have longer lifespans compared to other mammals of similar size. This extended lifespan allows bats to accumulate viral infections over time, increasing the chances of viral persistence and potential transmission. Bats also have a relatively low metabolic rate during periods of torpor or hibernation, which may slow down viral replication and reduce the harmful effects of viral infections.

Ecological Role:

Bats play essential ecological roles as pollinators, seed dispersers, and insect regulators. Their ecological interactions bring them into close proximity with other animals, including livestock and humans, increasing the potential for interspecies viral transmission.

It is important to note that while bats are known to carry a diverse array of viruses, not all viruses present in bats are capable of directly infecting humans. The transmission of bat viruses to humans usually requires an intermediate host, such as another animal species, which acts as a bridge for the virus to cross the species barrier.

Understanding the factors that contribute to viral spillover events from bats to humans is crucial for mitigating the risks and implementing appropriate surveillance, prevention, and control measures to prevent future zoonotic disease outbreaks.

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