Check out my review of Ken Wilber's latest book Finding Radical Wholeness

Integral World: Exploring Theories of Everything
An independent forum for a critical discussion of the integral philosophy of Ken Wilber
B. May is a former experimental high-energy particle physicist, data scientist, and business software developer.

NOTE: This essay contains AI-generated content

Is Integral Theory Metaphysical or Post-Metaphysical?

Interrogating ChatGPT / ChatGPT

B. May

TLDR: ChatGPT said, “In terms of Integral Theory, while it aspires to a nondual perspective, it inevitably operates within the constraints of language and cognition, and it's formulated by individuals with their own biases, interests, and blind spots. Even the mantra of "transcend and include" implies a directionality and hierarchy that could be seen as a form of subtle dualism.”


In my last IW essay I lamented the volume and rate of ChatGPT essays being posted recently on IW while extolling the unique virtue of human essays. I opined that I was choosing not to engage in such activities. I also admitted that I like using ChatGPT to brainstorm and clarify my thinking, and indeed included some ChatGPT output in the essay, mostly in the endnotes.

Yet, I admit that ChatGPT is often so succinct and to the point that it can “speak” in a disembodied and dispassionate way that most humans can't. To that end, in this essay I have used ChatGPT in Q&A mode to inquire about certain aspects of Integral Theory as ChatGPT sees it. Of course its views are not "true," but they are telling given the vast amount of data it has been trained on. There is no human that can review all text and conversation related to Integral Theory and wax on it without inherent human biases and personal motivations.

This disclaimer is my mea culpa on the use of ChatGPT in this essay (and likely subsequent ones). At the same time, I hope to also stretch myself to contribute essays written using my own biased language model, which feels to me a more vulnerable human endeavor.


For at least a decade now, I've had a frustrating relationship with Integral Theory (IT) and the conflicting variety of perspectives on it expressed by different essay contributors to Integral World (IW). Some claim that IT is—in its latest "version"—post-metaphysical. Yet at the same time Wilber and other integralists continue to make metaphysical claims about the ultimate nature of reality and consciousness.

For metaphysical and mystical integralists, IT appears to encapsulate the "true" metaphysics of reality in contrast to all prior, lesser and lower metaphysical and philosophical systems. Further, for some mystic integralists, there is only One True Integral Theory as visioned by Ken Wilber and other great masters. For these integralists, Integral Theory is metaphysics par excellence which cannot be surpassed.

On the other hand, for non- and post-metaphysical integralists, IT is largely taken as a comprehensive and pragmatic heuristic tool for analysis/synthesis within a primarily developmental framework. For some of these integralists, Integral Theory is a useful meta-theory and meta-narrative, but not the only one, and not necessarily the ultimate or final one. For these integralists, it is primarily a tool, a practice, a set of lenses and so on, but not a metaphysical system.

This metaphysical / post-metaphysical schism, tension or contradiction in the theory itself means that one can read IT as either metaphysical or post-metaphysical while minimizing or denying the other view. Thus both metaphysical integralists and post-metaphysical integralists can be "partially right" in the context of Integral Theory as it exists today.

However, I have never seen a died-in-the-wool integralist be willing to be skeptical of Integral Theory (the parts they believe in) or have epistemic or psychological humility about their claims vis-a-vis Integral Theory. This, I posit can largely be laid at the feet of Integral Metaphysics which is not a theory. In contrast, Integral Post-metaphysics tends to get much less air time and debate.

For the rest of this “essay” (ChatGPT interview) I will be interrogating Integral Theory with ChatGPT in order to suss out metaphysical, post-metaphysical and other aspects of Integral Theory that I believe have helped maintain a persistent schism between some in the integral community.


Q: Is Ken Wilber's Integral Theory metaphysical or does it contain metaphysical premises or statements?

Ken Wilber's Integral Theory is a comprehensive transdisciplinary framework that seeks to bring together truths from many different domains of knowledge, including scientific, spiritual, psychological, artistic, and cultural perspectives. While it is not strictly a metaphysical theory, it does contain certain metaphysical premises and incorporates metaphysical elements.

At its core, Integral Theory presents a metaphysical model that recognizes the interplay of four fundamental dimensions or "quadrants" of reality: the interior-individual (consciousness), the exterior-individual (biology), the interior-collective (culture), and the exterior-collective (social systems). It posits that each of these quadrants are important aspects of a holistic reality and that none can be reduced to another. This is a metaphysical claim because it speaks to the fundamental nature of reality, its structure, and its constitutive elements.

Further, Integral Theory embraces a kind of spiritual metaphysics by recognizing the validity of various spiritual and contemplative traditions and their insights into the nature of consciousness and ultimate reality. This includes the concepts of states of consciousness, stages of development, and lines of development, which are metaphysical in nature because they seek to explain the nature of reality beyond what is empirically observable.

However, it should be noted that Wilber's theory also heavily emphasizes empirical evidence, scientific methods, and the necessity of integrating multiple perspectives (a process he refers to as "methodological pluralism"). In this sense, it's not purely metaphysical but attempts to harmonize metaphysical concepts with empirical knowledge.

In summary, while Integral Theory is not purely a metaphysical theory, it does incorporate metaphysical premises and makes metaphysical claims, particularly in relation to the nature and structure of reality, consciousness, and spirituality.

Author's comment: It is interesting that ChatGPT says, "it is not strictly a metaphysical theory" in one paragraph and in the next says, "At its core, Integral Theory presents a metaphysical model."

Q: So Integral Theory is metaphysical (posits a metaphysics), just not exclusively metaphysical?

Yes, that's a succinct and accurate way to put it. Integral Theory indeed posits a metaphysics as it makes certain claims about the fundamental nature of reality. For instance, it posits an ultimate source or principle ("Spirit"), a driving force of evolution ("Eros"), and a hierarchical organization of consciousness and reality (the "holarchy").

However, Integral Theory is not exclusively metaphysical because it also encompasses areas such as psychology, sociology, ecology, spirituality, and more. It's intended as a comprehensive framework that can be used to analyze and understand a wide range of phenomena, from individual development and cultural evolution to scientific discovery and spiritual experience.

So, while metaphysical elements are an important part of Integral Theory, they are part of a larger, more encompassing framework that includes non-metaphysical elements as well. That's why it's often described as a "theory of everything"—not in the sense of explaining every specific phenomenon in detail, but in the sense of providing a broad, integrative framework that can include and relate different kinds of phenomena and different areas of inquiry.

Author's comment: Interesting that ChatGPT keeps emphasizing IT “is not exclusively metaphysical.”

Q: What are the specific metaphysical elements and claims of Integral Theory?

The following are some of the specific metaphysical elements and claims found in Ken Wilber's Integral Theory:

1. Quadrants:

These are four fundamental dimensions of reality—interior-individual (intentional), exterior-individual (behavioral), interior-collective (cultural), and exterior-collective (social)—which Wilber posits cannot be reduced to one another. The quadrants represent different perspectives on reality, suggesting that reality itself is multifaceted and irreducible to just one perspective or dimension. This is a metaphysical claim as it speaks to the fundamental nature of existence.

2. Holons:

The concept of holons posits that reality is composed of entities that are simultaneously wholes and parts of other wholes. This hierarchical structure, or "holarchy," can be seen in physical, biological, and social systems. This is a metaphysical claim about the structure of reality.

3. Lines, Levels, States, and Types:

Integral Theory uses these four elements to describe the complexity of individual and collective growth. Lines refer to multiple intelligences or capacities that can develop (e.g., cognitive, emotional, moral), levels refer to stages of development in those lines, states refer to temporary stages of consciousness (like waking, dreaming, and deep sleep), and types refer to various consistent styles or patterns (like masculine and feminine). These elements, particularly lines and levels, represent metaphysical claims about the fundamental process of growth and development.

4. Spirituality and Consciousness:

Wilber acknowledges various states and stages of spiritual awareness or consciousness, drawing from numerous spiritual and contemplative traditions. These states include, for example, psychic, subtle, causal, and non-dual states. He posits that these states represent different kinds of awareness or consciousness that transcend the purely physical, which is a metaphysical claim.

5. Evolution:

Integral Theory embraces a view of evolution as a process of unfolding complexity that is not only physical but also includes the development of consciousness and culture. This perspective represents a metaphysical view of evolution.

While these elements have metaphysical components, they are also interwoven with empirical perspectives. Ken Wilber's approach in Integral Theory is to seek an integration of empirical and metaphysical views to create a comprehensive understanding of reality.

Author's comment: If ChatGPT's assessment is correct, the core of Integral Theory (Spirit, Eros, holons, holarchy, evolution, the four quadrants, lines, levels, states and types) is metaphysical, that is about how nature and consciousness ultimately work.

Thus claims by some interpreters that Integral Theory is (solely, purely) post-metaphysical, don't hold water, even if it has post-metaphysical aspects.


Q: Is metaphysics of Integral Theory nondualist, monist, dualist, pluralist or other?

Ken Wilber's Integral Theory draws from various philosophical traditions, but it can be most accurately described as a form of nondualism. However, this doesn't mean it entirely rejects the insights of monism, dualism, or pluralism. Instead, it attempts to integrate these perspectives within a broader, more inclusive framework.

Here's a closer look at how Integral Theory relates to each of these philosophical stances:

1. Nondualism:

Wilber's theory emphasizes the ultimate nonduality of reality, drawing from various spiritual traditions like Buddhism, Advaita Vedanta, and others. In this view, all distinctions (like subject/object, self/other, mind/body) are ultimately illusory, and there's only one, undivided reality. This doesn't mean dualities are rejected, but rather they are seen as partial views that are transcended and included in nondual awareness.

2. Monism:

While Integral Theory recognizes the unity of reality (which could be seen as a form of monism), it doesn't reduce all reality to a single substance or category, like material monism or idealistic monism would do. Instead, it emphasizes the "tetra-arising" or co-emergence of different dimensions of reality (interior/exterior, individual/collective).

3. Dualism:

Integral Theory acknowledges the practical usefulness of dualistic distinctions (like mind/body, self/other, culture/nature), but it sees these as relative truths that are transcended and included in a nondual perspective. So, it's not dualistic in a strict philosophical sense, but it does recognize and use dualities.

4. Pluralism:

Integral Theory incorporates a kind of pluralism in its acknowledgement of multiple valid perspectives on reality (represented by the four quadrants), multiple lines of development, and multiple states of consciousness. However, it also posits a sort of developmental hierarchy among these perspectives, lines, and states, so it's not a relativistic form of pluralism that sees all perspectives as equally true.

In summary, Ken Wilber's Integral Theory is primarily nondualistic, but it also includes elements of monism, dualism, and pluralism within a comprehensive, integrative framework. It's an attempt to transcend and include the truths of these various philosophical stances, while also acknowledging the limitations and partiality of each stance.

Q: If you had to arrange these in a metaphysical hierarchy in the context of Integral Theory, how would these best be arranged?

When trying to arrange nondualism, monism, dualism, and pluralism into a metaphysical hierarchy within the context of Integral Theory, it would be important to understand these as different perspectives or ways of interpreting reality rather than as discrete stages in a linear progression. Each perspective offers insights into the nature of existence, and Integral Theory seeks to "transcend and include" these perspectives within a more comprehensive framework.

However, if one had to organize these perspectives into a "hierarchy" in relation to Integral Theory, it might look something like this:

1. Nondualism:

This is placed at the top because Integral Theory ultimately recognizes the nondual nature of reality. This perspective sees all apparent separations and dichotomies (such as subject/object, self/other, etc.) as constructs that are ultimately transcended in the unitive awareness of Spirit or nondual consciousness.

2. Monism:

Following nondualism, Integral Theory posits a type of monism, in which all of reality is understood to emerge from a single Source, which Wilber often refers to as Spirit. However, this monism is panentheistic rather than purely idealistic or materialistic, recognizing the "tetra-arising" or co-emergence of different dimensions of reality (interior/exterior, individual/collective).

3. Pluralism:

Next is the pluralistic perspective, recognizing that there are multiple valid ways of interpreting and understanding reality. This is reflected in the four quadrants of Integral Theory, which represent different dimensions or perspectives on reality. However, unlike a purely relativistic pluralism, Integral Theory also posits a developmental hierarchy among these perspectives.

4. Dualism:

While Integral Theory ultimately transcends dualistic thinking in favor of a nondual perspective, it still recognizes the utility and practicality of dualistic distinctions. These are seen as necessary constructs that help us navigate the world, even if they are ultimately transcended in nondual awareness.

Remember, however, that this hierarchy is not about discarding lower perspectives as one moves up, but rather about including them in a more encompassing view. Each perspective contributes valuable insights into the nature of existence, and each is a part of the comprehensive vision that Integral Theory attempts to provide. This is why the phrase "transcend and include" is often used to describe the process of moving from one perspective to another in this context.


Q: How is Integral Theory: monist, unitive, universalist, totalizing, hierarchical, teleological?

Ken Wilber's Integral Theory is a complex and comprehensive framework for understanding and synthesizing various aspects of human experience and knowledge. Here's how it relates to the terms you've asked about:

1. Monist:

Wilber's philosophy can be seen as monist because it posits that all the diverse aspects of reality and human experience can ultimately be understood as expressions or manifestations of one underlying reality. His approach to consciousness, for example, suggests that all levels of consciousness are manifestations of a singular reality.

2. Unitive:

Integral Theory is unitive in the sense that it aims to bring together diverse perspectives and dimensions of human existence into a coherent whole. It posits that the many different fields of knowledge and human experience are all part of one integrated system. 3. Universalist:

Integral Theory is universalist in its aspiration to be a framework that can integrate all forms of knowledge and human experience, regardless of cultural, philosophical, or disciplinary boundaries. It seeks to be a kind of "theory of everything" that can encompass all the diverse ways that humans understand and interact with the world.

4. Totalizing:

In its ambition to account for all forms of knowledge and human experience, Integral Theory can be seen as totalizing. However, this totalizing aspect is balanced by its emphasis on the partial truth of all perspectives. That is, while it aims to incorporate all perspectives into one framework, it also acknowledges the partiality and limitations of each perspective.

5. Hierarchical:

Integral Theory uses a developmental model that is hierarchical, also known as a holarchy, to describe the evolution of consciousness. This model includes various stages or levels, each of which encompasses and transcends the previous ones. However, unlike traditional hierarchies, in a holarchy, every level has its own unique value and importance.

6. Teleological:

The developmental model in Integral Theory can be seen as teleological because it posits a direction or end goal for the evolution of consciousness. Wilber often describes this process as an unfolding from "egocentric" to "ethnocentric" to "worldcentric" to "kosmocentric" stages of awareness and concern, suggesting a movement toward greater complexity, inclusivity, and integration.

So while these terms can be used to describe aspects of Integral Theory, it's important to note that the theory is multifaceted and includes a variety of perspectives and approaches. Its intention is to honor and integrate the partial truths in all perspectives, rather than reduce everything to one single view.

Q: If Integral Theory has these aspects, how might they be problematic?

The characteristics you mentioned—monism, unity, universalism, totalization, hierarchy, and teleology—while being central to Ken Wilber's Integral Theory, can indeed bring up some challenges and criticisms. Let's discuss some of these:

1. Monism and Unity:

The notion of a single underlying reality can be criticized as an oversimplification of the complex and diverse nature of existence. It may also undervalue or dismiss other ontologies, such as dualism or pluralism, that see reality as fundamentally composed of multiple distinct entities or principles.

2. Universalism:

Universalism can be seen as inherently ethnocentric, imposing one set of values or worldview on all cultures and societies. It can risk ignoring or downplaying the unique characteristics, values, and ways of knowing that different cultures have developed, which may lead to a form of intellectual imperialism.

3. Totalizing:

This approach, which seeks to incorporate all forms of knowledge and human experience into a single framework, risks oversimplification and reductionism. It may not fully account for the complexity and uniqueness of individual perspectives, experiences, or fields of study.

4. Hierarchy:

Even though Wilber uses a holarchy (a hierarchy of wholes where each level has its own unique value), this is still subject to critique. Hierarchical models can be seen as inherently oppressive, promoting a value-laden ranking system that privileges certain stages or states over others. Critics argue that it could potentially lead to elitism or a disregard for "lower" stages.

5. Teleology:

The teleological aspect of Integral Theory, which proposes an inherent purpose or direction in the evolution of consciousness, can be problematic. It suggests a predetermined end goal, which might not align with empirical evidence or other philosophical views. It may also privilege certain states of consciousness as more "advanced" or "evolved," which can inadvertently marginalize other states or ways of being.

It's important to note that while these potential problems exist, proponents of Integral Theory argue that the framework itself, when understood and applied correctly, allows for an inclusive and balanced approach that respects the partial truth in all perspectives. It's seen as a continuous, evolving framework that can incorporate critiques and adapt over time.

Q: Yet many philosophical and religious systems have these elements which seem compelling to humans (psychologically, culturally, politically) yet can create division between different individuals and groups.

Indeed, many philosophical and religious systems throughout history have incorporated these elements—monism, unity, universalism, totalization, hierarchy, and teleology. They can be compelling as they provide a sense of order, direction, meaning, and inclusivity, among other things.

However, as you correctly pointed out, these same elements can also contribute to division and conflict among different groups for several reasons:

1. Exclusivity and Absolutism:

Systems that claim to provide a universal, totalizing framework or a singular truth can create division by devaluing or invalidating other belief systems or perspectives. This can foster a sense of superiority among adherents, leading to intolerance, conflict, or even violence towards those who hold different beliefs.

2. Hierarchies:

Hierarchical systems, even if they are meant to represent developmental stages or levels of understanding, can lead to elitism and discrimination. Those at "higher" stages might see themselves as superior and may marginalize those at "lower" stages.

3. Imperialism:

Universalizing frameworks can sometimes act as vehicles for cultural or intellectual imperialism, where one culture's beliefs or philosophical systems are imposed on others. This can lead to the erasure of local cultures, traditions, and knowledge systems.

4. Teleology and Predeterminism:

Teleological systems that posit a predetermined goal or direction can create division by labeling certain paths or states as more desirable or evolved. This can marginalize or dismiss other ways of being or paths of development.

5. In-group and Out-group Bias:

Adherence to a specific system can foster a strong in-group identity. This can strengthen bonds within the group, but it can also create a strong out-group bias, leading to conflict with those outside the group.

6. Dogmatism:

When these systems are adhered to rigidly or dogmatically, it can stifle open-mindedness, intellectual exploration, and respectful dialogue.

This underscores the importance of approaching any philosophical or religious system with critical thinking, empathy, and a commitment to dialogue and mutual respect. While such systems can provide valuable perspectives and insights, it's crucial to remember that they represent partial views of complex realities, and that diversity of thought is both inevitable and valuable.


Q: Integral theorists (including Ken Wilber) assert there is no valid or substantial critique that could be levied on integral theory because it "transcends and includes" everything, including every perspective and every critique. In this logic, every critique is partial (and often ignorant).

The "transcend and include" principle of Ken Wilber's Integral Theory is indeed meant to account for the partial truth in every perspective, including those that critique the theory. However, claiming that there's no valid or substantial critique possible due to this principle could potentially create a blind spot and could be seen as a form of dogmatism or intellectual closure.

While the principle of "transcend and include" is designed to incorporate all perspectives and acknowledge the limitations of each, it's important to be cautious of interpretations of this principle that might lead to the dismissal or marginalization of critiques. Such interpretations could stifle necessary dialogue and the possibility for growth and refinement of the theory.

The strength of any theoretical framework, including Integral Theory, lies not in its immunity to critique but in its capacity to engage with critique in a productive manner, integrating the insights gained from that engagement into the ongoing evolution of the theory. Therefore, even if a critique is seen as partial, it can still offer valuable insights that can contribute to the enrichment and development of Integral Theory.

Additionally, the claim that Integral Theory "transcends and includes" everything may risk oversimplification, as it may not fully account for the complexities and nuances of all perspectives, especially given the immense diversity of human experiences and ways of knowing.

While it is one of the most comprehensive theories available and aims to be as inclusive as possible, Integral Theory is still a human construct and is, therefore, subject to the same limitations as any other human endeavor. It is an evolving framework that can and should continue to adapt and grow in response to ongoing dialogue, critique, and the ever-unfolding complexities of human knowledge and experience.


Q: Say more about "Integral Theory is still a human construct and is, therefore, subject to the same limitations as any other human endeavor".

Sure. What I mean when I say "Integral Theory is still a human construct" is that it's a product of human understanding and perception, created to make sense of the world and our experiences in it. Like any model or theory, it's an abstraction or simplification of the complex reality it's intended to represent. It's not an objective or absolute truth, but a human-made tool for understanding and interpreting the world.

Now, when I mention it's "subject to the same limitations as any other human endeavor," here's what I mean:

1. Incompleteness:

No model or theory can fully capture the totality of reality, simply because reality is so complex and multifaceted. Every theoretical framework is, by necessity, a simplification and can therefore only provide a partial view.

2. Bias:

All human constructs, including theories, are inevitably shaped by the perspectives, experiences, and biases of their creators. This means that they may unintentionally exclude, marginalize, or distort certain aspects of reality.

3. Dynamic Reality:

Reality is not static; it is ever-changing and evolving. A theory created at a particular point in time may not fully account for new phenomena, perspectives, or insights that emerge later.

4. Interpretation and Misinterpretation:

Like any complex idea, Integral Theory can be subject to varying interpretations. Some interpretations might align with the theory's original intent, while others might distort or oversimplify it.

5. Difficulty in Operationalizing:

Like many comprehensive theories, applying the principles of Integral Theory to real-world situations can be challenging. This might limit its usefulness in practical contexts.

These limitations are not unique to Integral Theory; they apply to any human endeavor to understand and interpret the world. Recognizing them does not diminish the value of Integral Theory; on the contrary, it can enhance its effectiveness by encouraging continual self-reflection, refinement, and evolution. The best theoretical models are those that can adapt, evolve, and remain open to critique. This is how scientific and philosophical progress occurs.


Q: Regarding "The best theoretical models are those that can adapt, evolve, and remain open to critique. This is how scientific and philosophical progress occurs", some integral advocates don't treat Integral Theory as a theory but as a set of absolute truths, or at least a superior system to any and all others.

Yes, this is a common issue encountered in many philosophical or theoretical systems, and not just Integral Theory. When adherents begin to treat a theory as a set of absolute truths, it can potentially limit the theory's growth and evolution. It also risks creating division and conflict with adherents of other systems, as you mentioned earlier.

It's important to remember that any philosophical or theoretical system is an attempt to understand and describe complex aspects of reality. These systems, including Integral Theory, are tools to help us make sense of our experiences. They can provide valuable insights and frameworks for understanding, but they shouldn't be taken as definitive or absolute representations of reality. Each has its strengths and limitations.

The idea of any one system being superior to all others can lead to a type of dogmatism that stifles dialogue, learning, and growth. A more productive approach would be to see different systems as complementary, each offering unique insights and perspectives that can enrich our overall understanding.

Treating Integral Theory, or any theory, as an evolving framework allows it to benefit from ongoing dialogue, critique, and the ever-unfolding complexities of human knowledge and experience. This perspective fosters an openness to learning, growth, and the integration of new insights as they arise.

In this light, even if some integral advocates treat the system as an absolute or superior truth, it's crucial to approach these perspectives with critical thinking and an understanding of the inherently partial nature of any theoretical construct. This way, we can benefit from the insights these frameworks offer while maintaining an openness to other perspectives and a willingness to continually refine and expand our understanding.


Q: Wilber and others have claimed that Integral Theory is post-metaphysical, at least in its latest "version". What aspects, elements or modifications to the theory support that claim?

Ken Wilber and proponents of Integral Theory have indeed asserted that the theory is "post-metaphysical," suggesting that it transcends traditional metaphysics in several important ways. Here are a few key elements and modifications to the theory that are relevant to this claim:

1. Methodological Pluralism:

Integral Theory embraces a wide variety of methodologies for investigating reality, ranging from scientific empiricism to introspection to spiritual practice. By doing so, it aims to move beyond the traditional metaphysical approach of developing theories about the ultimate nature of reality based purely on logical or conceptual reasoning. Instead, it suggests that our understanding of reality should be grounded in a pluralistic array of practices and experiences.

2. Empirical Integration:

While Wilber's theory certainly encompasses metaphysical elements, he has attempted to ground these in empirical observations whenever possible. For instance, the stages of consciousness he outlines are derived from numerous empirical studies of psychological development. This reflects an effort to move beyond speculative metaphysics towards a more grounded, integrative approach.

3. Non-exclusivity of Perspectives:

Traditional metaphysical systems often claim exclusive access to the ultimate truth about reality. In contrast, Integral Theory asserts that all perspectives have some degree of truth, but none can claim to have the complete truth. This is a post-metaphysical move in that it rejects the idea of a single, absolute metaphysical truth.

4. Emphasis on "Tetra-Arising":

Wilber's concept of "tetra-arising" or "tetra-evolution" suggests that all quadrants co-arise and co-evolve, denying the primacy of any one quadrant. This rejects traditional metaphysical notions that tend to privilege one aspect of reality (like matter or mind) as fundamental.

5. Pragmatic and Contextual Understanding of Truth:

In the post-metaphysical approach of Integral Theory, truth is seen as context-dependent and verified through its pragmatic applicability, rather than as an absolute, context-independent metaphysical reality. This is in line with a more postmodern approach to truth and knowledge, challenging traditional metaphysical views.

6. Recognition of Constructed Nature of Concepts:

A key aspect of post-metaphysical philosophy is the recognition that all concepts, including metaphysical ones, are human constructions. This doesn't mean they're irrelevant or false, but it does mean they are contingent on human cognition and cultural-historical context. This is in contrast to traditional metaphysics, which often posits concepts as reflecting universal, timeless truths about reality.

In summary, while Integral Theory has metaphysical components, its post-metaphysical approach arises from its attempts to integrate and transcend traditional metaphysical and empirical methodologies, its emphasis on the partial and constructed nature of all perspectives, and its focus on the co-arising and co-evolution of all dimensions of reality.


Q: If as you have said, Integral Theory is metaphysical and also post-metaphysical, different adherents can claim one or the other of these is true or real. Yet there has been a longstanding human divide between those who ascribe to a strong metaphysical view and those who don't (e.g. agnostics, skeptics, atheists). Integral theory hasn't resolved or integrated this division in the community of self-declared integralists.

How can we understand this, either within Integral Theory or outside of it?

The issue you're describing is indeed a challenging one, and it reflects broader ongoing debates about metaphysics, spirituality, and their relationship with science and secular thought. Not only in Integral Theory, but in many other fields of philosophy, spirituality, and science, there is a diversity of views on these subjects, and it's not uncommon for disagreements and debates to arise within communities that are built around these ideas.

Within Integral Theory, it's conceivable that different practitioners might emphasize different aspects of the theory based on their personal inclinations, philosophical orientations, and spiritual beliefs. Some might focus more on the metaphysical aspects of the theory, others might be more interested in its post-metaphysical dimensions, and yet others might find value in its integrative methodology without fully subscribing to either the metaphysical or post-metaphysical interpretations.

From an integral perspective, these divergences might be seen as reflecting the "different lines of development" that the theory acknowledges. Just as individuals can develop along various lines such as cognitive, emotional, moral, and spiritual, it's possible that different practitioners of Integral Theory might develop different degrees of receptivity or affinity for its metaphysical and post-metaphysical aspects.

At the same time, these differences could also be seen as reflecting the "partiality" that Integral Theory acknowledges in all perspectives. In other words, any single interpretation or application of Integral Theory is likely to be partial, limited, and conditioned by the interpreter's own perspectives, experiences, and developmental level. In this view, the diversity of interpretations within the Integral community could be seen as a testament to the theory's richness and complexity, rather than a flaw or contradiction.

That said, from an outside perspective, these differences might raise questions about the coherence and consistency of Integral Theory. Critics might argue that the theory's broad scope and flexibility make it prone to inconsistent interpretations, or that it lacks clear criteria for adjudicating between different interpretations. These are valid concerns, and they point to the ongoing challenges of developing and applying a truly comprehensive, integrative approach to knowledge.

Ultimately, the dialogue and debate within the Integral community, and between that community and its critics, can be seen as part of the process of refining and evolving the theory, and of exploring its potentials and limitations. This kind of dialogue is common in many fields of knowledge, and it can be a valuable means of stimulating intellectual growth and discovery.


Q: My own hypothesis is that no theory of reality, however sophisticated or comprehensive, can satisfy all humans, nor can humans navigate and "transcend and include" all differences and conflicts. At some point we just disagree or cannot understand other perspectives, experiences, and realities.

Indeed, I would postulate that every system, doctrine, narrative, etc is dualistic even as it might portray itself as otherwise because it posits: this (system), not that (system); this (paradigm) over that (paradigm); this first (cause), that second (effect) and so on. This is likely a function of language which reifies what it names and the human psyche which automatically identifies and dis-identifies. Further, different "lines" of identity, interest, commitment and investment are naturally dualistic and self-confirming/self-conforming.

Your hypothesis brings forward some very valid points about the nature of human cognition, language, and the construction of systems and theories. It's true that language, by its very nature, is dualistic. It involves the categorization and differentiation of experiences into discrete units (words, concepts) that can be named and talked about. Any system or theory that is articulated in language inevitably involves some degree of dualism, because it involves making distinctions between different concepts, categories, or phenomena.

Moreover, as you point out, human beings are not just cognitive beings, but also emotional, relational, and embodied beings with various interests, commitments, and investments. These "lines" of identity and interest often shape our perspectives and experiences in ways that can be deeply ingrained and self-reinforcing. This can lead to various forms of cognitive bias, attachment, and defensiveness, which can further entrench dualistic thinking and hinder the recognition of other perspectives.

In terms of Integral Theory, while it aspires to a nondual perspective, it inevitably operates within the constraints of language and cognition, and it's formulated by individuals with their own biases, interests, and blind spots. Even the mantra of "transcend and include" implies a directionality and hierarchy that could be seen as a form of subtle dualism. Moreover, as you suggested, the very act of positing a system over and against other systems introduces a dualism between that system and its alternatives.

This doesn't necessarily invalidate the insights or contributions of Integral Theory, or any other system. But it does suggest a need for humility, reflexivity, and ongoing critical engagement in the construction and application of such systems. Recognizing the inescapable limitations and partialities of our perspectives can be a valuable antidote to dogmatism, and it can open up space for dialogue, learning, and evolution.

In a broader sense, your hypothesis also resonates with various philosophical and spiritual traditions that emphasize the limitations of conceptual knowledge and the ultimate ineffability of reality. From this perspective, all systems, theories, and doctrines are provisional and incomplete, serving as useful tools or maps for navigating the world, but never fully capturing the depth and complexity of the territory they represent.


Q: If you scan this thread, what concerns do I have about Integral Theory?

From this conversation thread, several concerns about Integral Theory are apparent:

1. Metaphysical Claims:

You've expressed concerns about the metaphysical foundation of Integral Theory. Specifically, you've questioned whether the metaphysical aspects are integral to the theory or if they're optional components. You've indicated that while some adherents might be comfortable with these metaphysical elements, others may not.

2. Inherent Dualism:

You've suggested that despite Integral Theory's claim to transcend and include dualism, it may still contain inherent dualistic structures. The act of distinguishing Integral Theory from other theories could be seen as a form of dualism.

3. Interpretation of Hierarchies:

Integral Theory's use of hierarchical structures (like levels of development) raises questions. You've asked about the implications of viewing these hierarchies as expressions of logical containment, increasing capability, or graded values.

4. Lack of Humility or Skepticism:

You've noted that Integral Theory might not adequately express humility or skepticism towards itself, which is problematic from a postmodern or post-metaphysical perspective. This could lead to a dismissive attitude toward critiques and a lack of acknowledgment of its own limitations.

5. Exclusivity and Totalitarian Aspect:

The theory's claim to "transcend and include" all other perspectives can seem totalitarian and one-sided, potentially stifling the validity and worth of other frameworks.

6. Limited Appeal and Resolution:

You've hypothesized that no theory of reality can satisfy all humans or fully resolve and integrate all differences and conflicts. It seems that the Integral community still grapples with divisions and disagreements, despite the theory's inclusive aim.

7. Theory vs. Practice:

You've touched upon the difference between theoretical understanding and actual practice. Even if Integral Theory has sophisticated conceptual frameworks, the embodiment and realization of these ideas in lived experiences can be challenging.

These concerns indicate a critical examination of Integral Theory's comprehensiveness, inclusivity, metaphysical basis, and practical implications.

Author's comment: Not a bad read, ChatGPT.

Q: Based on these, what systems or ideas might appeal most to me?

Given your concerns and interests mentioned throughout this conversation, here are a few systems or ideas that might resonate with you:

1. Postmodern and Post-Metaphysical Philosophy:

These philosophies often stress the limitations of language, the fallibility of meta-narratives, and the importance of humility in intellectual endeavors. They may provide a critical lens through which to examine Integral Theory and other comprehensive models of reality.

2. Agnosticism or Open-ended Skepticism:

Given your recognition of the inherent dualism in all systems and the limitations of human comprehension, an agnostic or open-ended skeptical stance may appeal to you. This stance maintains openness and curiosity without necessarily committing to any specific metaphysical or philosophical system.

3. Phenomenology:

This philosophy studies the structure of various types of experience as experienced from the first-person point of view. Given your critique of conceptual knowledge and your interest in personal experience and perception, this might resonate with you.

4. Epistemological Humility:

Any system or approach that emphasizes epistemological humility, acknowledging the inherent limitations of our knowledge and understanding, may be appealing.

5. Pragmatism:

Given your interest in the practical implications of philosophical systems, you may find the pragmatist tradition appealing. Pragmatism is less concerned with metaphysical truth and more concerned with ideas and beliefs in terms of their practical impacts and usefulness.

6. Jain Philosophy:

The Jain concept of "Anekantavada" or the multiplicity of viewpoints could appeal to you. It emphasizes the partial and relative nature of knowledge and encourages a pluralistic, tolerant attitude towards other perspectives.

Remember, these are suggestions based on our conversation and your interests and concerns might lead you to other systems or ideas as well. It can be beneficial to explore widely and deeply across many different traditions, philosophies, and disciplines.

Author's comment: You get me, ChatGPT!

Comment Form is loading comments...