INTEGRAL WORLD: EXPLORING THEORIES OF EVERYTHING
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HUGH MARTIN is listed in Who's Who in the World. He has appeared on numerous talk shows, led seminars at many colleges and corporations, and spoken at numerous professional conferences and colloquia. Mr. Martin is president of the NASD-registered securities brokerage firm, Hugh Martin Securities, and of the SEC-registered investment advisory firm, Hugh Martin & Co. Hugh is also president and co-founder of the life planning and counseling firm, Whole Life Advisory. AMALIA KAYE MARTIN ('Kaye') is a gifted natural medicine practitioner and an instructor in nutrition and natural medicine at Baumann College.

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Hugh & Kaye Martin's essays

AQAL, THE NEXT GENERATION?

How ADAPT Points the Way Toward
a Major Revision Of Ken Wilber’s
Model of Human Development

Hugh & Amalia Kaye Martin

PREFACE

ADAPT – The Next Generation of AQAL and ILP?

Is AQAL the best foundation for an Integral program of personal growth? This article proposes an alternative model called ADAP2T (All Dimensions, All Processes, All Participants, Together) that is more clear, more balanced, more differentiated, and more complete.

Are there four essential Dimensions, as in AQAL[1] – or really at least eight, as in ADAPT? Is there just one key Participant, as in AQAL – or at least seven, as in ADAPT? Are there nine basic Process categories, as in ILP[2] – or really at least 33, as in ADAPT? Is there just one form of Orchestration, or at least 12? Are both AQAL and ILP sufficiently complete and articulated to be of optimal use as tools for personal growth? And are they sufficiently integrated and coordinated to deserve the title Integral?

Ken Wilber is the Big Kahuna of Integral Theory. Everything Integral that we have today, we owe to him. However, as Ken once mused. . . When they lay me in the ground, the words I’d like engraved on my tombstone are, ‘He was right, but partial.’[3] As this study suggests, Ken may not have to wait for death to achieve his wish.[4] Wilber, AQAL, and ILP are each right, but partial. Their pronouncements in the field of personal growth are outstanding and impressive – but seriously limited, and significantly incomplete. Perhaps it’s time to give Wilber’s venerable and revered AQAL (and its ILP derivative) a new face-lift? Maybe we’re ready for Integral Operating System, The Next Generation?

Our purpose here is to reconsider, elucidate, refine, revise, expand and update Wilber’s admirable work – not to challenge, contest, bash, denigrate, debunk, replace, or supercede it.[5] Wilber is a Titan on whose shoulders all our efforts stand.

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TABLE OF CONTENTS

  • PREFACE
  • Division 1: INTRODUCTION
    • OVERVIEW
    • HOW TO READ THIS STUDY
  • Division 2: OVERVIEW OF ADAPT
    • Section D: THE DIMENSIONS OF THE GROWTH CONTINUUM
    • Section PR: THE PROCESSES OF GROWTH
    • Section P: THE PARTICIPANTS IN THE GROWTH PROCESS
    • Section T: 'TOGETHER-NESS' (Guidance & Orchestration of the Growth Process)
    • Section A: ADAPT: NAVIGATING THE GROWTH CONTINUUM
    • Section I: IMPEDIMENTS AND RESOLUTIONS
  • Division 3: TOWARD A REVISED MODEL OF HUMAN GROWTH
    • HOW JOURNEYS GO WRONG
    • WHY THE BEST MODEL IS ESSENTIAL
    • CONSTRUCTIVE COMPARISONS
    • RE-EXAMINING KEN WILBER
    • BUILDING THE NEXT INTEGRAL OPERATING SYSTEM
  • Division 4: APPENDICES
    • Table A1: ADAPT AND WILBER COMPARED Organized by Domains
    • Table A2: ADAPT AND WILBER COMPARED Organized by Divergence
    • Table A3: ADAPT AND WILBER COMPARED Organized by Degree of Confidence
    • Table B1: INTEGRAL LIFE PRACTICE -- from Integral Spirituality
    • Table B2. INTEGRAL LIFE PRACTICE (precursor) Ė from Integral Psychology & One Taste
    • Table B3. PATHOLOGIES & TREATMENT MODALITIES Ė from Integral Psychology
    • Appendix C: IMPEDIMENTS TO THE GROWTH PROCESS
    • Appendix D: RESOURCES FOR STUDY
    • Appendix E: GLOSSARY OF TERMS
    • Appendix F: THE ODYSSEY of HOMER
    • Appendix G: CREDITS
  • HUGH AND KAYE MARTIN Biographical Information
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Table of Contents

Division 1: INTRODUCTION

OVERVIEW

When sailing to some distant port, we need four things – a map, a ship, some voyagers, and a navigator. Likewise, for an effective program of personal growth that will carry us through the journey of life, we need four Domains -- Dimensions (of the Growth Continuum), Processes (of growth), Participants (in the growth process), and ‘Together-ness’ (Orchestration of all four Domains). When all four Domains are complete and combined, they form an Integral Program we call ADAP2T (pronounced A’-Dapt)[6] – All Dimensions, All Processes, All Participants, Together.

In this study, we describe the major Features of ADAPT – giving examples showing how each Parameter manifests itself in real life. Then, we describe the potential Impediments that can disrupt each Parameter of growth – along with possible Resolutions. Detailed examples of each Impediment are shown in Appendix C.

Next, we show how ADAPT may be used to develop a revised model of human growth. After explaining why an accurate model is essential, and emphasizing our constructive intent, we show how comparisons between ADAPT and Wilber can highlight areas where AQAL may need re-examining, and perhaps revision. We conclude by outlining a series of steps for creating a revised and updated model of human development.

Parameter-by-Parameter comparisons between ADAPT and Wilber will be found in Appendix A. Of 140 different comparisons, we find that Wilber’s position needs re-examination in at least 73 instances. Of those 73, at least 50 Wilber positions may particularly be in need of revision.

The article consists of four Divisions -- some divided into several sections:

  • Division 1: INTRODUCTION
    • Overview. This Overview that you are now reading.
    • How to Read This Study. Suggestions on how to get the most out of reading this article.
  • Division 2. OUTLINE OF ADAPT. A description and overview of our proposed model of human growth, ADAPT -- what it consists of, how it works, and how it is manifested in real life.
    • Section D: The Dimensions of the Growth Continuum. The eight Features, or Dimensions, that define human growth.
    • Section PR: The Processes of Growth. The 33 basic methodologies, or Processes of growth, and their seven Themes of emphasis.
    • Section P: The Participants in Growth. The seven aspects of identity, or Participants, that partake in the growth process.
    • Section T: The Together-ness of Growth. The 12 types of ‘Togetherness’ (Orchestration/Guidance) – by which we weave together the diverse strands of life experience.
    • Section A: ADAPT -- Navigating the Growth Continuum. How Dimensions, Processes, Participants, and Together-ness can be combined to build a truly Integral growth program.
    • Section I: Impediments and Resolutions. All the Impediments that can cause the growth process can go wrong – and the Resolutions that can fix these Impediments. (Specific examples of each Impediment are found in Appendix C.)
  • DIVISION 3. TOWARD A NEW MODEL OF HUMAN GROWTH. Why Ken Wilber’s model of human development may be due for careful re-examination. How we can begin the revision process.
    • Where Models Go Wrong. How deficiencies or distortions in Dimensions, Processes, Participants, and Together-ness can limit the effectiveness of the growth process.
    • Constructive Comparisons. The constructive and cooperative intent of our critique of Wilber, AQAL, and ILP.
    • Re-examining Ken Wilber (‘Re-examining’). A comparison of ADAPT’s positions on human growth to those of Ken Wilber – intended to shed light on Wilber’s perspective and to highlight areas in which Wilber’s model may need re-examination, refinement, or revision. (Parameter-by-Parameter comparisons will be found in Tables A1-3 of the Appendix.)
    • Creating a Revised Model of Human Growth. A step-by-step program for creating a revised and updated model of human growth -- using AQAL and ADAPT as a foundation.
  • Division 4. APPENDICES. Important information you need to understand ADAPT, or any other model of human development. The Appendices (and footnotes) are intended not just as background material, but as important extensions of the main article – to be referred to and read as references occur in the text.
    • Tables A1-3: ADAPT and Wilber Compared (‘Comparisons Tables’). These three Tables are among the most important sections of this entire study. Here we show which Wilber positions may be in need of modification, and why. The three Tables that make point-by-point comparisons between ADAPT’s position on each Parameter of human growth, and that of Ken Wilber. Each Table contains the same comparisons, but organized differently for ease of study. The first Table is organized by Domain, the second by Divergence between the two positions, the third by our degree of Confidence in the validity of ADAPT’s position.
    • Tables B1-3: Wilber’s Processes. Three Tables that display the Processes as conceived by Wilber. The first two show, from a Actualization Growth perspective, how Wilber’s ILP methodologies correspond to ADAPT’s 33 Processes. The third shows, from a Restoration Growth perspective, how Wilber’s Pathologies and Treatments correspond to his Fulcrums.
    • Appendix C: Impediments to the Growth Process. A detailed listing of some typical potential Impediments that correspond to each Feature – with examples from real life.
    • Appendix D: Resources for Study (‘Resources’). Books and other resources useful for understanding and investigating ADAPT – as well as the comparable models of Ken Wilber, AQAL, ILP, and Integral Institute.
    • Appendix E: Glossary of Terms (‘Glossary’). Definitions of important terms, with the corresponding term from Wilber’s system, where available. In the main text, the first major occurrence of each term is Bolded, and other occurrences are Capitalized.
    • Appendix F: Homer’s The Odyssey. A brief synopsis of Homer’s classic work, to help the reader understand some of our illustrative examples.
    • Appendix G: Credits. Acknowledgment of sources for quotes and graphics.
    • Biographical Background. Background and qualifications of the authors, Hugh and Kaye Martin.

HOW TO READ THIS STUDY

This article will repay careful study. For it to be of most value to you, we suggest the following sequence of study:

  • Download the MS Word version. To navigate easily around this study, download the MS Word version (see link before Table of Contents). In that version, you can hyperlink quickly between corresponding topics of each section -- and also notate you comments and emendations directly into the text. [Permission to download is granted, but please email us that you have done so.]
  • Read the ADAPT section (in Division 2). Here we give an overview of the entire ADAPT model. Read over this section fairly quickly to get the major points and the general thrust.
  • Read Impediments and Resolutions section (end of Division 2). Here we explain how each Feature of growth has corresponding potential Impediments (ways the growth process can go wrong). We divide those Impediments between those that can be resolved by Guidance, and those that require Therapy.
  • Read Impediments Appendix (Appendix C). In the Impediments Appendix, we give detailed examples of the many of the ways the growth process can go wrong. Read the ADAPT section again – this time pausing at each Feature to the read examples of the corresponding Impediment/s in the Appendix. [In the MS Word version, click the letter/number of the ADAPT Feature to jump to the corresponding Impediments section.]
  • Read the Constructive Comparisons section (in Division 3). Here, before beginning the comparisons between ADAPT and Wilber, we explain the limitations and qualifications on those comparisons.
  • Read the Re-examining Ken Wilber section (in Division 3). Here, we show how the many Divergences between ADAPT and Wilber highlight places where Wilber’s positions may need re-examination.
  • Read ADAPT and Wilber Compared Table (Table A1). Read the ADAPT and Impediments sections again – this time pausing at each Feature and Impediment to read the corresponding comparisons between ADAPT and Wilber in Table A1. At each entry, ask yourself a set of questions: Does the comparison accurately characterize the two positions? Which position appears more valid? Is there a third position that is more plausible? [In the MS Word version, click the name of the ADAPT or Impediments Parameter to jump to the corresponding comparison.]
  • Read the Building the Next Integral Operating System section (in Division 3). Here, we outline a series of steps you can take to participate in the creation of a revised model of human development. Follow those steps carefully to integrate everything you have read up until now.
  • Read the evidence. When available, read our companion study, The Fundamental Ken Wilber [scheduled for publication January 2008]. Here, we quote passages from Wilber’s writings to illustrate Wilber’s position on each Parameter.
  • Draw your conclusions. Summarize what you have discovered. From your own perspective, what model of human development makes the most sense? What model is the most usable? How might you apply these insights to your own profession – and to your own life? If you have downloaded the MS Word version, please send us the file with your comments and emendations.
Explanation of Our Number System, Hyperlinks, Terminology, and Graphics
Numbering. Parameters are designated with letters/numbers in the most intuitive manner. The four Domains of growth are designated with their first letters – Dimensions (D), Processes (PR), Participants (P), and Together-ness (T). The number after the letter/s indicates which Feature within a Domain (i.e. the Dimensions are D1 through D8). A lower-case letter after a number indicates a sub-parameter. Impediments are indicated with the letter I, followed by a letter indicating the type of Impediment -- either A (Actualization) or R (Restoration) -- hence, IA or IR.
Summing up, for example, the letter/number IA-D6a means: Impediment/ ActualizationDimension 6 [Vectors & Directions], sub-parameter ‘a’ [Quadrants]. That is, an Actualization Impediment for the Vectors Dimension, Quadrants category.
The numbering system of this article will also be used in future studies on ADAPT, AQAL, and related topics.
Hyperlinks. In the MS Word version of this study, the letter/number of each parameter is hyperlinked to the corresponding Impediment in Appendix C. The name of each parameter is hyperlinked to the corresponding Wilber comparison in Appendix A1.
Terminology. The following terms of description and comparison occur throughout this study. Generally, a Feature represents any characteristic of ADAPT designated by a letter/number. An Impediment is any Feature of growth which is deficient or malfunctioning. A Parameter can be either a Feature or an Impediment. Divergence is the degree to which ADAPT’s position on a given Parameter differs from Ken Wilber’s (12 levels of Divergence, ranging from complete agreement to substantial difference of opinion). Confidence is the authors’ degree of certainty in the validity of the ADAPT position (7 levels of Confidence, ranging from 95% to 60%). All other terminology is defined in the Glossary section.
Graphics. Graphics are used throughout this article as identification and navigation tools. The same graphic will be used in multiple places for the same or similar Parameters or topics. For example, the Life Cycle of the Butterfly will be used to indicate all references to the Transition Cycle.

Table of Contents

Division 2:
OVERVIEW OF ADAPT

When sailing to some distant port, we need four things – a map, a ship, a set of voyagers, and a navigator. Likewise, in devising an effective program of personal growth, we need four Domains -- Dimensions (of the Growth Continuum), Processes (of growth), Participants (in the growth process), and ‘Together-ness’ (Orchestration of all four Domains). When all four Domains are complete and combined, they form an Integral Program we call ADAP2T – All Dimensions, All Processes, All Participants, Together.[7]

This section gives a brief overview[8] of each of those Domains. We first discuss each of the Dimensions, then each of the Processes, then each of the Participants, then each Mode of ‘Together-ness’– and finally, we put them all together in our ADAPT model. To conclude this section, we discuss all the Impediments to growth, along with the main Resolutions to those Impediments. For illustration, we use the metaphor of the nautical journey – drawing, where appropriate, on the adventures of Odysseus from Homer’s The Odyssey.[9]

Table of Contents

Section D:
THE DIMENSIONS OF THE GROWTH CONTINUUM

A map shows what routes we can take and what destinations we can head for in any voyage. Each map has coordinates that show our position and indicate what we will find in different locations. The basic coordinates are latitude and longitude – but a more sophisticated map might include topography, climate, vegetation, ethnic populations, and so forth.

Our map can be a small map, showing the streets and by-ways of our local region. It can be a broader-range map, showing whole states, or countries, or continents. It can be just as broad, but even more detailed – showing the tallest mountains and the deepest canyons, the dry arid regions, the tropical jungles, the teeming cities seething with people. We will be examining the very broadest and most detailed map in the field of human growth. We call that map the Growth Continuum.

Growth is the journey we take across the turbulent seas and exotic lands of life. The Growth Continuum is a map of all the routes and destinations our journey of growth can take. The Dimensions are the coordinates that define different Features of our map. For Odysseus, Growth is the entire series of adventures he engages in throughout the course of The Iliad and The Odyssey. Odysseus’ Growth Continuum is the entire set of islands, kingdoms, open seas, and subterranean depths he visits in the progress of his journey.

In technical language, Growth is the process of moving and progressing along the Growth Continuum. The Growth Continuum is a field of eight Dimensions, which describes the various ways human growth can take place. The Dimensions are the Features that define different elements of that growth. The eight Dimensions of the Growth Continuum are: Stages, Transitions, States, Realms, Arenas, Vectors, Actualization/Restoration, and Coordination -- as described below:

D1: Stage growth

Stages are the ports of call in our life’s journey. They are the places where we stop off, take on fresh supplies, transact some business, deal with hostile natives, and then re-embark on our journey. Like Odysseus, we must outmaneuver the Cyclops, or extricate ourselves from the seductive wiles of Circe, before we can continue on our travels.

In technical language, Stages are the levels of development, maturity, enlivenment, or enlightenment through which we pass as we grow. Stages are generally periods of horizontal Translation – times when we are expanding and becoming better at activities we already know how to do. Likewise, they are periods of Assimilation – where we digest and metabolize the Discoveries of the previous Transition, turning them into established Traits. Stages occur at both the Individual and Collective Levels (including Cultural). (see P2)

Stage Growth occurs as we progress within each Stage of human development. Here, we meet and master the challenges presented by a particular Stage.

Ex: “As a toddler, I’m getting better and better at walking.”

D2: Transition growth

Transitions are the routes of passage our ship will take between one port of call and the next. They are ventures of exceptional risk and uncertainty – where we may lose our way, or encounter unexpected obstacles and dangers. Like Odysseus, our ship may be blown off course, thrashed with storms by some wrathful god, tempted by Sirens, or sent careening between two grim choices like the man-devouring Scylla and the boiling vortex of Charybdis.

In technical language, Transitions are the quantum leaps that take us from one Stage to the next. Transitions are generally periods of vertical Transformation – times when we are becoming something we’ve never been before. Likewise, they are periods of Discovery – periods when we encounter situations and insights we will assimilate during our next Stage of development.

Transition Growth occurs as we Transition from one Stage to the next. Here, we leave the familiar comfort of past (often-surmounted) challenges, and venture into the unknown territory of strange and daunting new challenges.

Ex: “So far, I’ve learned to crawl. Now, I’m getting up off all fours, taking the chance I might fall and hurt myself, and learning how to toddle.”

D1/2: The Developmental Sequence of Stages and Transitions

The developmental sequence is our entire life journey – from open sea, to port of call, to open sea again, until our ship reaches its final destination. Like Odysseus, we must sail from one island to the next, encountering many harrowing dangers and tempting diversions, before we finally touch land in our home country.

In technical language, the basic Developmental Sequence is a series of alternating Stages and Transitions – of Translation, followed by Transformation, followed by Translation, and so forth.

D1/2a: The Transition cycle

Transition occurs through a four-phase process we call the Transition Cycle:

1. Identification (‘embedding’[10]). Initially, the Self identifies with a particular Stage of development (manifests the initial Experienced Self -- see P1)

Ex: “I am a baby.”

2. Differentiation (‘dis-embedding’). Next, the Self transcends that Stage by dis-identifying with it (manifests the Observed Self).

Ex: “I am no longer the baby I was.”

3. Re-identification (‘re-embedding’). Then, the Self begins to identify with the subsequent Stage of development (manifests a new Experienced Self).

Ex: “I am now a toddler.”

4. Integration. Finally, the Self consolidates the new identification -- integrating the new Experienced Self with the old Observed Self.

Ex: “I’m a toddler with good feelings about the baby I used to be.”

D1/2b: Fundamental Developmental Sequence

For the internal Passages of Psyche, Body, and Spirit (see D4), the entire series of alternating Stages and Transitions may be called the Fundamental Developmental Sequence (FDS). All told, the FDS for internal Passages may be viewed as consisting of 38 distinct steps. (see Table B3) For the sake of clarity and simplicity, these steps are consolidated into 12 developmental Clusters, – consisting of 12 Stages, separated by 11 Transitions. Within those 12 Clusters, the seven central Stages are known in Eastern philosophy as the Chakras.

D1/2c: The Chakras

The Chakras may be viewed in two ways – both as a condensation of the FDS and as an integration of the three internal Passages (see D4). From a Western perspective, the Chakras are merely a consolidation, condensation, or simplification of the FDS into seven basic Clusters, or Stages. From an Eastern perspective, the Chakras are energy phenomena that manifest themselves simultaneously in all three internal Realms of Body, Psyche, and Spirit. At the Body level, the Chakras are experienced as seven nerve plexes located in ascending bodily regions from the base of the spine to the crown of the head. At the Psyche level, the Chakras are experienced as seven Stages of mental and emotional development. At the Spirit level, the Chakras are experienced as seven portals through which universal cosmic energy flows into our being. Thus, from an Eastern perspective, each Stage of development is simultaneously physical, psychological, and spiritual. (see D4, Architecture of Self)

Ex: “When my chiropractor gives me a sacral adjustment (base of spine), I experience increased physical stability (body), emotional grounding (psyche), and spiritual compassion (spirit). When he gives me an atlas/axis adjustment (top of neck), I experience improved eyesight (body), mental clarity (psyche), and spiritual exaltation (spirit).”

D1/2d: The Generation Cycle

In our journey, the Generational Cycle is the dynastic tradition of seamanship, combat, and leadership passed down from father, to son, to grandson. Each Generation continues the tradition, but each modifies it according to their position among Generations.

In technical language, a Generation is a biological period of life, normally about 20-25 years, between the time one is born and the time one first procreates. According to Strauss and Howe,[11] dynamic cultures repeatedly pass through a Generation Cycle consisting of four characteristic Generations:

  • Prophetic. Conceives a new cultural vision and a new impetus for change.
  • Reactive. Reacts against or detaches from the dominance of the Prophetics.
  • Civic. Fills out and implements the vision of the Prophetics.
  • Bureaucratic. Institutionalizes and standardizes what once was the Prophetic Vision.

After the four Generations are complete, the cycle repeats all over again – but at a higher level of development. A small number of great people influence, dominate, and typify each Generation.

Ex: “Between the Civil War and the 1950’s, America passed through four Generations: Franklin Roosevelt and Frank Lloyd Wright (Prophetics), Hemingway and Bogart (Reactives), Disney and John Wayne (Civics), Walter Mondale and the Four Freshmen (Bureaucratics). In the 1960’s, a whole new Cycle began with the Beatles and Bill Gates (Prophetics).”

The Generation Cycle may be considered the cultural equivalent of the Transition Cycle (D1/2a) for individuals. It is a plausible scenario for how growth takes place at the cultural level.

D1/2e: Collective Stages

Groups go through a sequence of developmental Stages very similar to individuals. Groups range in size and complexity from two-person relationships, to families, to teams, to workgroups, to communities, to whole societies and cultures.

Culture Passages

Culture Passages are the internal (cultural) and external (societal) phases of development that occur as mass populations progress through the Stages and Transitions of cultural development. Culture Passages follow a Stage-related growth path similar to individuals, but spread over eons of time. The Generation Cycle (D1/2d) is one possible description of how growth takes place at the Cultural level.

Spiral Dynamics

The Spiral Dynamics model is perhaps the most popular and influential contemporary system of Culture Passages. According to researchers Clare Graves and Don Beck, cultures have progressed in varying degrees through eight Stages of development[12] since the dawn of humanity.

Ex: “The vanguard of our culture is now progressing out of the multi-national, Wall Street, assembly-line mentality -- and into the autonomous entrepreneurship of Silicon Valley, or into the communalistic ecological sensitivity of the ‘green’ era.”

D3: State Growth

The States are the supremely illuminating moments in our journey when we commune with the gods. Like Odysseus, we receive from time to time visitations, edicts, and guidance from Athena, from Hermes, from Poseidon, and from Zeus.

In technical language, the States are the higher levels of consciousness experienced by mystics and translucents. Ken Wilber identifies the four higher States as: Nature Mysticism (Psychic), Deity Mysticism (Subtle), Formless Mysticism (Causal), Non-Dual Mysticism. In a broader sense, Natural States are the four normal, non-induced States of consciousness – waking/gross, dreaming/subtle, deep sleep/causal, and nondual. Altered States are non-normal, often-induced States – such as meditative States, mystical experiences, drug-induced States, and near-death experiences. Peak Experiences are temporary Altered States of exceptionally-high significance. Such experiences only contribute to sustained growth when they are converted by assimilation to Permanent States or Traits.

A particularly controversial and ‘thorny’ issue, States may be viewed (among other things) as the highest Stages of growth (D1), as a separate Line of development (D5), as the defining feature of a separate Realm (D4), or as an independent Dimension (D3).

State Growth occurs as we increase our capacity to move fluidly among the higher States of consciousness.

Ex: “Even when I’m not meditating, I feel heightened awareness and increased connection with the supernatural.”

D4: Realm growth

The Realms are the planes or spheres of existence in which our journey takes place. Like Odysseus, our journey may take us from everyday reality, through a series of magical islands, down into the underworld of the dead, into contact with the divine world of the gods, and then back to everyday, material reality again.

In technical language, Realms are the major spheres of human experience in which growth and development can occur – everyday Life, the Psyche, the Body, and the Spirit. Corresponding to these Realms, there are four major paths of human growth (called Passages) -- one external and three internal – each of which contains their own series of Stages and Transitions through which growth takes place. (see also P3d)

Realm Growth occurs as we grow simultaneously and differentially in all four Realms of consciousness. (See D5, Differential Growth) The Realms, with their corresponding Passages, are as follows:

D4a: Life Passages

Life Passages are the external phases of accomplishment or Achievement that occur as we progress through the biological Life Cycle.

Ex: “In my Life Passages, I develop through various Stages along my bodily life cycle – from infancy, through childhood, through adolescence, and on through various phases of adulthood.”

D4b: Psyche Passages

Psyche Passages are the internal phases of mental Maturation that occur as we progress through the Stages of psychological Development.

Ex: “In my Psyche Passages, I develop my cognitive abilities from preconceptual and intuitive, to concrete and then formal operations, and finally to polyvalent logic.”

D4c: Body Passages (experienced)[13]

Body Passages are the internal phases of physical Enlivenment that occur as we awaken and connect the Energy Centers of our body.

Ex: “In my Body Passages, my attention proceeds from Base Chakra needs for food and comfort to the Brow Chakra higher-thought functions of my central nervous system.”

D4d: Spirit Passages

Spirit Passages are the internal phases of spiritual Enlightenment that occur as we ascend through the Stages and States of spiritual Development.

Ex: “As Christians and Jews, we honor the Spirit Passages of life with seven sacraments – ranging from Baptism, Communion, and Confirmation To Marriage, Confession, and Ordination – and finally to Extreme Unction at death.”[14]

The arrangement of the internal Realms may be called the Architecture of the Self. In the evolutionary process of increasing complexity, the Realms of Self were developed sequentially – first Body, then Psyche, then Spirit. However, as we see it, each new Realm was added to the existing ‘architectural’ structure as an additional mode of functionality. That is, the seven Chakral regions – originally only physical – took on psychological and spiritual functions as humans evolved. (Literally, a case of ‘transcend and include’!) The Self, then, is much like an old building that has been retrofitted – first with indoor plumbing, later with electricity, then with telephone, and finally with internet.

This Multiple-Functionality, or ‘Retrofit,’ configuration means that growth takes place simultaneously and in parallel in all three Realms. That is, in our view, we grow simultaneously in the Realms of Body, Psyche, and Spirit – within each of which there are a set of corresponding and parallel Stages and Transitions. This conjoining of Realms and Stages is best summarized and visualized using the Eastern version of the Chakras (D2d).

Ex: “When my partner and I do Tantra, we feel a surge of Kundalini from the base of our spine to the crown of our head. We experience all seven Chakras in each of three ways -- through physical arousal, emotional bonding, and spiritual communion.”

D5: Arena growth

Arenas are the various types of life improvement we may engage in, in the course of our travels. Simultaneously, our journey may be a way to develop our seamanship, a means of advancing our naval career, a merchant venture promising possible profit and enrichment, a way to enhance our health and well-being, and a source of pleasure and enjoyment.

In technical language, Arenas are the various areas of our life where growth takes place.

Ex: “I live my everyday life in approximately ten Arenas – ranging from my career, to my finances, to my health, to my marriage.”

Within each Arena, there may be various Lines of development or Lines of inquiry.

Ex: “The Ethics & Morality Arena of Spirit Passages has two Lines – one for moral principles (values), the other for moral perspective (inclusiveness).”

Each Line may be investigated by a variety of Studies.[15]

Ex: “Wilber’s Ego/Self Line includes Studies by Sullivan, Erikson, Graves, and Kegan.”

At each Stage of life, and within each Arena, we grow by encountering certain key Issues. These challenging Issues must be addressed and resolved to transition successfully to the next Stage.

Ex: “In the Life Passages Realm, a major Issue for Young Adults is becoming economically and emotionally self-sufficient.”

Ex: “In the relationships Arena, I used to experiment and ‘play the field’ as an unattached teenager. Now that I’m a Young Adult, the Issue of finding a lifetime partner is becoming important to me.”

Arena Growth occurs as we grow within the various Arenas of each Realm. Arena Growth is a prime example of the phenomenon of Differential Growth. That is, in different Arenas, growth takes place at differing rates – resulting in people who are more advanced in one Arena than in another:

Ex: “I’m growing fine in the Career Arena – but need to catch up in the Relationship Arena.”

For each Realm, Arenas are characterized differently – either as spheres of action, or types of experience, or themes of development, or aspects of personal evolution. Each Realm has its own set of Arenas – the major ones being as follows:

D5a: Life Arenas

The counseling and coaching professions often explicitly address at least ten Life Arenas:

  • Individual Arenas -- 1) Education & Skills-Building, 2) Career & Calling, 3) Finances & Investments, 4) Health & Well-Being, 5) Recreation & Enjoyment.
  • Collective Arenas -- 6) Relationships & Marriage, 7) Sexuality & Sensuality, 8) Family & Children, 9) Friendships & Community, 10) Society & Culture.

D5b: Psyche Arenas

The psychological Studies from the Tables of Ken Wilber’s Integral Psychology break down into nine separate Arenas:

1) Fundamental Needs, 2) Sexuality & Sensuality, 3) Affect & Emotions, 4) Ego/Experienced Self, 5) Leadership, 6) Cognition, 7) Art/ Aesthetics/ Creativity, 8) Ethics & Morality, and 9) Worldviews.

D5c: Body Arenas (experienced)

[under development]

These Arenas will most likely be drawn from the fields that employ them – alternative medicine (chiropractic, acupuncture, Chinese medicine); experiential, body-oriented therapies (Reichian, Gestalt, sensory awareness); and body-oriented spiritual practices (yoga, Tantra).

D5d: Spirit Arenas

[under development]

Wilber suggests as possible Spirit Arenas (‘Lines’): care, openness, concern, religious faith, and meditative stages.

An important aspect of Spirit Passages are Myths and Archetytpes. Myths are epic stories that convey foundational attributes of a culture. Archetypes are features of Myths that are expressive of common or collective human needs, instincts, or potentials. Archetypes and Myths are the products of an archaic Stage of cultural development. However, in our view, they also embody a subtle language that is potentially useful for describing, apprehending, accessing, and evoking many States of consciousness[16] – including the higher States.

D6: Vector and direction growth

We grow in four Quadrants and in four Vectors – but also in both Directions along those Vectors. Our growth is a cyclic flow between Polarities that goes through twin arcs of Evolution and Involution over the course of a lifetime.

D6a: Quadrants of growth

The Quadrants are the four perspectives from which our journey may be viewed. Our journey may be seen as an exciting personal adventure (UL), as an opportunity for enhancing our wealth and position in life (UR), as a means of spreading the beliefs and values of our home culture (LL), and as an effort to open trade relations with remote nations (LR). Our voyage will be the most successful if it achieves all four types of objectives.

In technical language, the Quadrants are four basic perspectives, or aspects of existence, from which any growth experience can be viewed – internal/individual (upper-left), internal/external (upper-right), internal/collective – i.e. cultural (lower-left); and external/collective – i.e. societal (lower-right). Quadrant Growth occurs as we maximize our growth by addressing all four perspectives.

Ex: “My financial achievements (upper-right) affect my external circumstances, but also my internal state of pride and confidence (upper-left). In addition, they affect my accepted role in society (lower-right), and the respect accorded me by a materialistic culture (lower-left).”

D6b: Vectors of growth

The Vectors are the four paths our journey may take. Like Odysseus, we may take a journey individually, or as part of a crew of intrepid sailors. We may journey through internal worlds (magic islands, dead spirits, gods) and external worlds (our return to home and family in Ithaca).

In technical language, Vectors are four fundamental paths of growth. That is, growth occurs in both Individual and Collective Participants (P2) – and occurs in both the Internal Realms (Body, Psyche, Spirit) and the external Realm (Life Passages) (D4). Vector Growth occurs by fully exploring all four paths in our growth process.

Ex: “I’m working on my assertiveness and self esteem (Psyche Passages – internal/ individual). At the same time, I’m developing a budget and cutting back on expenses. (Life Passages – external/ individual).

The matrix below illustrates the relationship between Quadrants and Vectors:

Participants/Passages Vectors of growth Perspectives Wilber Quadrants
Individual/ Body-Psyche-Spirit Passages Individual/ internal Inner Personal Upper-left
Individual/ Life Passages Individual/ external Outer Personal Upper-right
Collective/ Body-Psyche-Spirit Passages Collective/ internal Cultural Lower-left
Collective/ Life Passages Collective/ external Societal Lower-right

D6c: Directions of growth/Polarities

Our life journey proceeds simultaneously in two Directions. Like Odysseus, we venture outward to explore islands of magic and enchantment, then inward to experience the cave of the Cyclops – upward to commune with the gods, then downward to plumb the depths of the underworld.

In technical language, growth proceeds in two opposite Directions – ascending and descending (or, outward and inward). Thus, in each Realm of development, we actually evolve toward two opposite states of consciousness, or Polarities:

Passage Ascending vector Descending vector
Life Passages Upward toward Achievement Downward toward Fulfillment
Body passages Upward toward Aliveness Downward toward Grounding
Psyche passages Upward toward Maturity Downward toward Authenticity
Spirit passages Upward toward Enlightenment Downward toward Compassion

Ex: “As I grow up, I develop psychologically in two very different, but complementary ways. I become more mature mentally and emotionally. At the same time, I slough off false identities, and become progressively more authentic.”

D6d: Cyclic flow

The Growth Continuum, then, is best characterized -- not as an upward spiral, a rocket-like trajectory, or a ladder-like climb -- but as an oscillation or cyclic movement between Polarities. In the growth process, we embrace, actualize, and integrate both Polarities and all intervening Stages – moving fluidly up and down the developmental column in a rhythmic ebb and flow.

Ex: “We grow like a great oak tree – spreading its branches, extending its roots, and expanding its trunk – as the cyclic flow of nutrients invigorates each part.”

D6e: Evolution/Involution.

Our life journey traces the twin arcs of Evolution and Involution. We first venture outward to unknown seas and exotic lands. Later, we return home with the treasures we have found and the knowledge we have gained. Like Odysseus, we have our Iliad of fame, glory, and conquest – followed by our Odyssey of returning home to reclaim our birthright.

In technical language, the full course of our existence follows a cyclic pattern, consisting of two great arcs we call Evolution and Involution. In the ascending, generally-earlier arc of our life, we evolve in all four Realms toward Achievement, Aliveness, Maturity, and Enlightenment. During the descending, generally-later arc of life, we ‘involve’ toward Fulfillment, Grounding, Authenticity, and Compassion.

Ex: “In my earlier life, I felt driven toward career success and social prominence. Now I seek deep relationships and meaningful accomplishments.”

This aspect of Evolution/Involution may also be called Inter-Passage Growth (see P3d).

D7: Actualization & Restoration growth

In our life journey, Growth is the process of exploring all parts our world, using all the resources available to us. Actualization Growth is the normal progress of our journey – from one port of call to the next, until we finally sight our destination, or until we complete our explorations. Restoration Growth is getting back on track when our ship has been blown off course, or damaged by storms or battles. It’s the time when we set in for repairs before resuming our normal journey.

In technical terms, Growth is the process of moving progressively along the Growth Continuum – exploring all 8 Dimensions, engaging all 7 Participants, making use of all 33 Processes, with the assistance of all 12 Modes of Guidance & Orchestration. We call this process Actualization of our Human Potential – or Actualization, for short. Growth can be of two types – Actualization Growth and Restoration Growth.[17]

D7a: Actualization Growth

Actualization Growth (or Human Potential growth) is the growth that takes place in basically healthy people. Actualization Growth is ‘growing forward’ – actualizing qualities for which we have an innate potential, by moving progressively to higher and higher Stages of development – in a broader and broader range of situations.

Ex: “As I grow, my mind becomes clearer, my emotions flow more freely, my body feels more alive, my capacity for deep reflection increases – and all the while, success comes to me more easily.”

Actualization often occurs through a four-phase process we call the Actualization Cycle (really, a version of the Transition Cycle):

1. Recognition. We become aware that a significant opportunity for growth exists.

Ex: “ If I can land this job, it will raise me from flunky to manager status.”

2. Engagement. We make a conscious effort to meet, face, or confront the challenge offered by that growth opportunity.

Ex: “Even though I’m scared stiff, and the competition is huge, I’ll go all out to land this job. I’ll prepare in any way I can to maximize my chances.”

3. Breakthrough. We succeed, win, or prevail. We master, surmount, or otherwise resolve the challenge favorably.

Ex: During the interview, I won him over with my enthusiasm, my responsible demeanor, and my well-rehearsed knowledge of his industry.”

4. Integration. We assimilate the Breakthrough into our personality and self-image.

Ex: “Now that I’ve succeeded in this interview, my self-confidence has increased. I find it easier to meet young ladies and to speak up when I have an opinion.”

Actualization can be implemented through Guidance & Orchestration. Guidance is the process of choosing and directing our activities through all the alternatives offered in the life journey.

Ex: “When my friend offered me dope, I had to decide whether to have fun for the moment, or keep my life on track for future happiness.”

Orchestration is the process of knitting together, coordinating, and unifying all the Dimensions, Participants, and Processes, and Modes of Together-ness that comprise the growth process.

Ex: “I need to balance and coordinate all the activities that keep my life going – my studies, my after-school job, my social life, and my connection with family. I’m happiest when they all work together.”

Guidance & Orchestration often facilitated by a Counselor, Coach, Coordinator, Orchestrator, or Guide – using any of our 33 Processes (see PR1-7 -- limited use of PR6). Guidance & Orchestration is the primary growth mode used by Parents in the original growth process, Child-Rearing.

D7b: Restoration Growth

Restoration Growth[18] (or Therapeutic Growth) is the growth that takes place in people with ‘problems.’ Restoration growth is ‘ growing backward’ – revisiting past Stage/s to resolve Impasses, so that normal, forward-directed growth can resume.

Ex: “Before I could open up my feelings, I needed to release some deep emotional blocks that kept me distant and aloof.”

Restoration often occurs through its own four-phase process called the Restoration Cycle (another version of the Transition Cycle):

1. Resurrecting. We become aware of the situation that created an Impasse – uncover it, recollect it, bring it to the surface.

Ex: “Through dreamwork, bodywork, and talk therapy, I’ve gradually become aware of a brief but traumatic abandonment episode in my early childhood.”

2. Confronting. We recognize, accept, face, own up to any deep-seated problems – and make the conscious decision to deal with them.

Ex: “With the support of my partner and my therapist, I’ve summoned up the courage to go back and deal directly with my fears.”

3. Re-experiencing. We relive that situation – revisit it, bring it to life, experience it through memory.

Ex: “In a series of sessions, I went back into that painful experience – reliving it again and again, releasing my anguish through anger and tears, until the sting finally began to fade.

4. Re-integrating. We come to view the situation from a healthier, more mature perspective – reinterpret it, unhook from it, place it in context. Often, we try to replace that memory with a healthier, ‘relived’ version of the same experience.

Ex: “Now that I have access to its source, my Shadow Self is dissolving, and my deep sense of alienation has begun to fade. To offset that early trauma, I now try to live in close communion with others.”

Restoration Growth often facilitated with the assistance of a trained, licensed therapist or healing professional – such as a clinical psychologist, psychiatrist, or doctor -- using Conscious Development Processes (#6/27-31) such as Body Therapies, Psychotherapy, and Psycho-biologic Techniques.

Both Actualization Growth and Restoration Growth can occur at both the Individual and Collective Levels (see P2).

Actualization and Restoration (along with Limitations and Impasses) are discussed at length in the Impediments and Resolutions section, page 43. Examples of each Impediment that pertains to Actualization and Restoration are outlined in Appendix C.

D8: Coordination Growth

The map of our journey has numerous major coordinates and other Features – Stage-like ports of call, Transition-like sailing routes, Realms in which the journey will take place, Arenas of activity, Vectors and Directions of travel, and alternate routes in case of mishap. Coordination growth is the combining and integration of all these factors to produce a successful voyage.

In technical language, Coordination growth is the weaving together and harmonizing of all Dimensions of the Growth Continuum into a balanced, unified, consistent whole.

Ex: “It’s important to me to balance my material achievements with physical vigor and psychological maturity.”

Coordination Growth is the Dimensions aspect of Together-ness (Guidance/ Orchestration). (see also P4, esp. Assimilation/ Integration, and the Orchestrators of Section T)

Through luck, diligence, trial-and-error, and inspired intuition, we coordinate and weave together the diverse strands of our development – the challenging Stages we confront, the harrowing Transitions we pass through, the entrancing States we explore, the colorful Realms we inhabit, the busy Arenas where we conduct our life, the Vectors and Directions we travel, the Impediments we ultimately hope to overcome. The multi-dimensioned fabric that results is our life.

Table of Contents

Section PR:
THE PROCESSES OF GROWTH

Every sea-going voyage needs a ship. There are numerous kinds of water-borne vessels – rowboats, and tugs, sloops and yawls, battleships and cargo barges, ocean liners and racing craft. Different kinds of ships and boats have been developed for different purposes – short hauls and long voyages, shallow sloughs or roaring cascades, fast travel or big payloads.

The Processes are the sailing vessels, and other means of transit, that carry us along the channels, coastlines, trade routes, and open seas of our growth. For Odysseus, the main vehicle is his trusty sailing ship. But other, more subtle ‘vehicles’ that facilitate his journey include: the clever trickery that enables him to escape from Cyclops’ cave, the miraculous potion that neutralizes Circe’s wiles, the ghoulish rituals that allow him to enter the World of the Dead, the prayers and offerings that invoke the blessings of the gods.

In technical language, the Processes are all the methods and techniques that move us along the Growth Continuum. Over the course of centuries, humankind has developed at least 33 different Processes[19] of growth. These Processes fall into seven distinct Themes of emphasis – ranging from very fundamental to very sophisticated. The Process Themes are: Foundational, Physical World, Socio-Cultural, Formal Investigation, Self-Expression, Conscious Development, and Comprehensive – as described below:

PR1: Foundational

Processes that are fundamental to all other Processes of growth. Four Processes: 1) Natural Nutrition, 2) Natural Medicine, 3) Nurturing & Bonding, and 4) Family Dynamics.

Examples from Nurturing & Bonding (#1):

  • Younger children: “We always keep our babies physically close – using baby slings, kiddie backpacks, and frequent on-demand holding.”
  • Older children: “We take our kids with us everywhere – to restaurants, plays, concerts, shopping, weekend outings, vacations. They rarely behave badly, because they always feel welcome and accepted.”
  • Adults: “As they grow up, our kids always strive for a stable, intimate, long-term relationship with one lifetime partner.”

PR2: Physical world

Processes that engage us with material reality. Four Processes: 5) Sensory Experience, 6) Physical Activity, 7) Life Experience, and 8) Natural Environment.

Examples from Life Experience (#7):

  • Younger children: “Except where necessary for safety, we avoid anything confining -- cribs, playpens, high chairs – so Baby can roam and explore at will.”
  • Older children: “When life challenges come up, we let our son handle them himself – getting his car fixed, collecting a debt, baking cinnamon rolls on Mother’s Day.”
  • Adults: “We consciously involve ourselves in unfamiliar situations, so we don’t get stuck in a rut. We like meeting people outside our social circle, hiking off the trail, and traveling to exotic locations.”

PR3: Socio-cultural

Processes that engage us with groups of people – from pairs to whole cultures. Six Processes: 9) Skills, 10) Habits & Programming, 11) Responsibility, 12) Enterprise, 13) Service, and 14) Acculturation.

Examples from Acculturation (#14):

  • Younger children: “When traveling, we like to visit local ethnic churches – Mexican, black, Hawaiian --because their faith is so natural and spontaneous.”
  • Older children: “After high school graduation, my older son toured Europe on a shoe-string -– using money he’d earned himself during the school year.”
  • Adults: “When our youngest was only one year old, we exchanged homes with a family in France – living in their home, making friends with their neighbors, and driving their camper van to remote corners of the country.”

PR4: Formal investigation

Processes that engage our thinking and reasoning powers. Six Processes: 15) Structure & Order, 16) Explanations, 17) Technologies, 18) Logic & Reasoning, 19) Planning & Orchestrating, and 20) Sciences & Proofs.

Examples from Planning & Orchestrating (#19):

  • Younger children: “Before we enrolled my little girl in her first school, we rehearsed her first day with her. We showed her the classroom, introduced her to her teacher, explained what to expect, and promised to pick her up afterward.”
  • Older children: “Our teenager has to plan out all his chores and homework, so he’ll be free on the weekend for band practice and a sleep-over.”
  • Adults: “Before we travel to the Northeast, we’ll plan how to hit all the sights – historic battlefields, Cape Cod plays, Penobscot Bay islands – without exhausting ourselves, and still staying within budget.”

PR5: Self-expression

Processes that enable us to express our inward reality in outward form. Six Processes: 21) Language & Communication, 22) Recorded Experiences, 23) Humor & Fun, 24) Stories & Literature, and 25) Expressive Arts, and 26) Archetype & Myth.

Examples from Expressive Arts (#25):

  • Younger children: “Eensy, beensy spider crawls up the water spout. The girls’ little fingers trace the ups and downs of a tiny insect beset by bad weather.”
  • Older children: “When our middle daughter swung over the stage on a thin cable crying ‘I can fly!’, she really was Peter Pan.”
  • Adults: “When my wife directs the school play, she coaxes and cajoles a great interpretation out of each young performer. Her work of art is the transformation that takes place in children themselves.”

PR6: Conscious development

Processes explicitly designed to promote growth, resolve problems, and facilitate enlightenment. Five Processes: 27) Body Therapies, 28) Introspection, 29) Psychotherapies, 30) Psycho-Biologic Techniques, and 31) Spiritual Practices.

Examples from Introspection (#28):

  • Younger children: “When the kids at school made fun of our daughter’s braces, she shared her feelings with Mom. Mom gave her sympathy and comfort, as well as a clearer perspective on why some kids actinsensitive.”
  • Older children: “Every night, our older son works in his big, leather-bound diary. He emerges from his room purged and content.”
  • Adults: “Our older daughter shares her tumultuous dreams of battles and panicky flight with Mom. Mon understands, because she herself has lived through such dreams, and come out whole.”

PR7: Comprehensive

Processes that combine and integrate many growth Processes. Two Processes: 32) Holistic Experiences and 33) Integral Programs.

Examples from Holistic Activities (#32):

  • Younger children: “When our little girl attends Ranch Camp, she’s immersed in a whole world that addresses her physical, emotional, spiritual, and life needs.”
  • Older children: “When our son attended a liberal arts college, academics was just part of becoming educated as a whole person.”
  • Adults: “At her month-long Esalen retreat, our older daughter is experiencing everything from group process, to yoga, to African dance – all the while earning her keep by harvesting veggies from the lush, organic garden.”

Within each general Process, numerous Modalities have emerged -- particular approaches through which growth may be implemented. Each Modality may be applied using specific methods, or Techniques.

Table of Contents

Section P:
THE PARTICIPANTS IN THE GROWTH PROCESS

The Participants are all the voyagers who take part in our life journey. The voyagers are the crew that maintain the ship and keep it moving in the right direction. They are the passengers who are transported to distant destinations. They are even the stowaways and saboteurs –intent upon disrupting the voyage and doing it harm. In a less direct fashion, voyagers include the backers who plan and finance the voyage, the dock handlers who load and unload cargo, even the well-wishers who wave white hankies as the vessel sets off for sea.

In technical language, the Participants are the seven aspects of identity, or Self, that partake in the growth process. The seven major Participants (or Selves) are: the Experienced/Observed, the Individual/Collective, the Personae, the Functional, the Impediment, the Generational, and the Witness[20] [21] -- as described below:

P1: The Experienced/Observed Self

The Experienced/Observed Self is the hero of our journey – the captain of our ship, the central character of our story, the adventurer who undergoes challenges and hardships, our Odysseus.

In technical language, the Experienced Self is the observing, subjective, inside, I-Self -- the Self that identifies with our current Stage of development. The Observed Self is the detached, objective, outside, Me-Self -- the Self from a prior Stage of development that we have transcended, or otherwise ceased to identify with.[22]

Ex: “I’m a cool, hip, savvy teenager. I used to be a fat, awkward, confused grade-school kid.”

The Experienced/Observed Self is the central Participant in the growth process, through the mechanism of the Transition Cycle (D1/2a).

P2: The Individual/Collective Self

In our journey, the Individual Participants are those who display their own identity, who make their own decisions, who bear the consequences of their own actions – like Odysseus, or his wife Penelope, or his son Telemachus. The Collective Participants are those who respond and act from some level of group consciousness – like the impetuous crewmen of Odysseus’ ship, or the collection of evil suitors who attempt to usurp his kingdom.

In technical language, the Individual Participant is any aspect of Self, experienced individually.

Ex: “As a Loyalist Enneagram type, I take pride in following orders carefully and pleasing my boss.”

A Collective Participant is any aspect of Self, experienced Collectively.

Ex: “As a Loyalist Enneagram type, I belong to that great group of public servants who keep the wheels of society turning.”

P2a: Collective Participants

Collective Participants in the growth process include every human group from two-person relationships, to families, to teams, to workgroups, to communities, to whole societies and cultures. (see D1/2e)

Ex: “I’m a group kind of gal. Sometimes my identity is entwined with my husband, sometimes with the family, sometimes with my workgroup, and sometimes with the community.”

Human groups follow a stage-related growth sequence very comparable to that of Individuals.

P2b: Cultures

Among Collective Participants, the ones most commonly studied from an Integral perspective are Cultures. At every Stage of Cultural development, Participants identify with and are shaped by their Culture. (see D1/2e)

Ex: “I’m just a farm boy living a country life not much different from olden times. But after I go to college, and go to work for a big city corporation, I’ll become part of the modern age.”

P3: Personae & Types

On our journey, the Types and Personae are the distinctive ‘characters’ we find aboard ship – the forceful leader, the dutiful helper, the reclusive thinker, the cooperative mate, the jokester, the conciliator, the rebel.

In technical language, Types are categories of personality that recur in human populations with some degree of consistency. The Persona (or Role) is a special variety of Type. The Persona is our ‘public face’ -- the set of attributes and behaviors we construct to enable the Self to play a part in the drama of existence. In other words, the Persona is the Self’s way of engaging in Life Passages.[23] Personae & Types include Gender Types, Enneagram Roles, Birth-Order Types, and various personality categorization systems like Jungian and Myers-Briggs. Even though the various Personae and Types within a given class are ‘horizontally’ equivalent, some may undergo Stage-like development.

P3a: Gender Types

Gender Types are the attitudes and modes of behavior that originate from one’s sexual Gender. The primary gender types are male and female. The two sexes generally have different modes of engaging with the world. Generally speaking, Males engage in Translation primarily through Agency (self-preservation), while Females engage primarily through Communion (self-adaptation).[24]

Ex: “We’re a liberated couple, but the two of us still handle issues differently. My husband tends to work independently to get things done. I work with others to obtain the best solution for everyone.”

Males engage in Transformation primarily through Eros (ascent, creativity), while Females engage primarily through Agape (descent, compassion).[25]

Ex: “When my husband changes, he’s driven primarily by inspiration. When I change, I’m moved primarily by concern for those dear to me.”

P3b: Birth-Order Types

Birth-Order Types are personality profiles that derive from the order of one’s birth among siblings. The major Birth Types are First Child (independent, dominant, self-centered), Middle Child (weak identity, insecure, misfit), Youngest Child (passive, cooperative, adored).

Ex: “As the eldest son, I usually get my way. My young sister usually goes along with me, and I love her for it. My middle brother is very accomplished, but is frustrated by all the recognition I get.”

P3c: Enneagram Roles

The Enneagram is a particular system for categorizing (‘typing’) Personae. An Enneagram Roles, [26] or ‘Enneagram Type,’ can be viewed as the fundamental cluster of attributes by which the Self manifests its public character. Normally, a person will manifest a Dominant Role and one or more Contributing Roles.

Ex: “I’m predominantly a principled, idealistic Reformer – but I’m supported in that Role by strong characteristics as an ambitious Achiever and a meticulous Investigator.”

P3d: Inter-Passage Growth

The Persona serves a key function in a form of development called Inter-Passage Growth. Inter-Passage Growth describes the arc the Self passes through over the course of a lifetime -- from internal growth, to external, and back to internal.[27]

Ex: “ I began life as a dreamy, clueless kid. Over the years, I learned to cope and make my way in the world. Now I’m ready to turn my attention again toward internal awareness – but with heightened insight and wisdom.”

The three phases of Inter-Passage growth are as follows:

1. Internal Orientation (immature Essence).[28] Initially, the infant and young child is focused entirely on its internal needs, urges, and desires. Lacking an effective Persona, the child is relatively helpless regarding the challenges of everyday life.

Ex: “In my early years, I feasted on the physical pleasures and emotional delights of life – but had little ability to take care of myself.”

2. External Orientation (Persona). External orientation emerges in order to equip us to confront and cope with a variety of real-life situations. As we mature, our Self develops a Persona, or Role, that allows us to ‘play a part’ (really, a whole series of Personae and a whole set of parts) in the drama of existence. Maximum external-orientation generally occurs by mid-life, when our greatest level of worldly success is attained.

Ex: “As I matured, my attention turned increasingly toward external concerns – first school grades and social popularity, then career success, then power and prestige.”

3. Internal Orientation (mature Essence). Once that Persona has served its purpose, the Self moves back again toward Internal Orientation. Role dissolution takes place (often through mid-life crisis) -- breaking down the artificial Persona, and allowing the Self to return home to its authentic nature, or mature Essence.

Ex: “Now that I’ve achieved success in my career and raised some outstanding kids, my attention is turning inward again – especially toward psychological fulfillment and the ultimate significance of my life.”

Thus, we begin life narcissistically-focused on the internal Passages of Body, Psyche, and Spirit. Increasingly, we direct our attention to experience-rich, external Life Passages. Finally, we return to wisdom-filled, internal Passages in the latter trimester of life. The result is a peculiar U-shaped Pattern of development -- where internal growth is initiated early in life, then apparently abandoned, then resumed much later. (see also D4)

P4: The Functional Self

On our voyage, the Functional Selves are the members of the crew described by their occupational assignments – the captain, the officer, the cook, the carpenter, the sailmaker, the gunner, the helmsman, the lookout.

In technical language, the Functional Self is the Self that represents fundamental human abilities we may utilize and identify with while performing a particular function. All told, we can experience at least ten Functional Selves (listed from lowest to highest): Autonomic/ Instinctive, Programmed, Volitional, Identity, Defensive, Emotional, Creative, Rational, Navigational, and Assimilative/ Integrative.

Ex: “I seem to have different identities at different times, depending on which situation I’m engaged in. Sometimes I’m my will, sometimes I’m my emotions, sometimes I’m my thinking brain. Sometimes I’m only a programmed robot following conditioned routines -- and sometimes I feel like the grand observer and orchestrator of all these identities.”

The Functional Selves do not undergo Stage-like development, but can themselves be considered Stages with which we identify.

P5: The Impediment Self

On our voyage, the Impediment Self is the grumbler, the plotter, the saboteur, the mutineer, the stowaway. The Impediment Self is the misfit who causes our journey to go wrong. It is the hidden demon in our basement that ‘comes back to haunt us.’ For Odysseus, the Impediment Self is the jealous crewman who unlooses the bag of adverse winds; the vengeful god Poseidon, angered by the blinding of his son Cyclops; the rapacious suitors, brought up without fathers to guide them.[29]

In technical language, the Impediment Self is any disattached, distorted scrap of identity produced by Impediments to the growth process.

Ex: “Normally, I’m a loving, caring, supportive wife – who always keeps the household running smoothly, with everyone satisfied and content. Then at times, some minor comment will send me into a seething rage I can’t explain.”

The Impediments that pertain to the various Participants are discussed in the Impediments & Resolutions section and in Appendix C.

P6: The Generational Self

In our story, the Generational Selves are the lineage of voyagers from one Generation to the next that take part in a series of journeys. Crafty Odysseus (Gen 3, Civic), harkens back to the heroes of old (Gen 1, Prophetic), defends his ineffectual father (Gen 2, Reactive), and inspires his dutiful son (Gen 4, Bureaucratic).

In technical terms, the Generational Self is the aspect of Collective identity that participates in the Generational Cycle (D1/2d) – just as the Experienced/ Observed Self (P1) is the aspect of Individual identity that participates in the Transition Cycle (D1/2a).

Ex: “I identify with all those of my GI Generation who, like me, risked their lives in World War II to make the world safe for democracy. I revere the great patriarchs like Churchill and Roosevelt, whose vision inspired us to make great sacrifices.”

P7: The Witness

In our journey, the Witness is the all-seeing, all-knowing observer of our journey – the gods above, the author of our story, Homer himself.

In technical language, the Witness is the all-pervasive Seer or I-I-Self. It is our Transcendent Self -- our Essence, True Self, or True Nature. The Witness observes, enfolds, includes, and smiles down on the other, more limited aspects of identity.

Ex: “When I see people squabbling over petty victories and trivial gains, I reflect how small is the ego of humankind, in comparison to the vast Consciousness that rules the universe.”

Table of Contents

Section T:
‘TOGETHER-NESS’
(Guidance & Orchestration of the Growth Process)

In our journey, ‘Together-ness’ is the process of guiding and orchestrating our journey. Guidance is the job of the Navigator – the process of keeping our ship and our voyage on course. Orchestration is the job is the Captain – the process of coordinating all elements of our voyage to produce a smooth-running, successful journey. Guides and Orchestrators are the alert steersmen, the clever navigational aids, the solicitous guides, and the instructive life situations that help coordinate and direct our life journey. For Odysseus, the main Guide is his divine counselor and companion, the goddess Athena, who appears in time of need. But there are other Guides and Orchestrators as well -- the wailing prophecies of Tiresias in the land of the dead, the thoughtful assistance of aged Mentor to Odysseus’ son Telemachus, and the instructive examples of harmonious kingdoms like Pylos, Sparta, and Phaecia.

In technical language, ‘Togetherness’ is the process of Guidance and Orchestration that integrates and coordinates all the Domains to produce a successful growth experience. Guidance is the process of choosing and directing our activities through all the alternatives offered in the life journey.

Ex: “When my son has money to spend, he must decide between the immediate pleasure of a fat, juicy pizza – or the long-term satisfaction of a car that will get him to school and social events.”

Orchestration is the process of knitting together, coordinating, and unifying all the Dimensions, Participants, and Processes, and Orchestrators that comprise the growth process.

Ex: “To keep my family running smoothly, I must put hot food on the table, see that everyone gets to school or work, take care of errands and bills, face the challenges of my own job – and still make private time for nourishing my soul.”

Guides and Orchestrators are the role models, leaders, teachers, counselors, coordinators, integrators, ‘mentors,’ and instructive life situations that facilitate Together-ness. Guides and Orchestrators are of three kinds – those provided by our society and culture (5 types), those we chose ourselves (5 types), and those we develop inside ourselves (2 types). Over the course of a lifetime, we will have the most opportunity for growth when we make use of all 12 types. The 12 major modes of Guidance/Orchestration are as follows:

COLLECTIVE & SOCIETAL GUIDANCE/ORCHESTRATION

Collective and Societal Guidance/Orchestration (‘Collective Guidance’) is the guidance in the growth process provided by the society and culture we grow up in. The five Modes of Collective Guidance are: Parents, Society/Culture, Holistic Growth Situations, Growth Centers, and Authorities – as follows:

T1: Parent/s

Parents are the original, the most influential, and (ideally) most beneficial Guides of our growth journey. Our Parents have potentially the greatest understanding of our needs, the greatest opportunity to have an impact on us, the greatest authority over our lives, the greatest identification with our concerns, and the greatest motivation to help us grow. Parenting (in its optimal form) can be seen as ‘nature’s way’ to provide every person with an Integral Life Guide.

Ex: “My Dad was there for me at every major life Transition. His experience and wisdom always helped guide me along the way.”

T2: Society/Culture

As we mature and move out into the stream of life, we receive guidance from the examples of those around us. Our society and culture provides us with a set of role models, a series of lessons on living life, a process of behavioral reinforcement, and a ready-made system of values to conduct our activities by.

Ex: “When I go out on the playground, I learn to make friends and to protect myself from those that might harm me. I learn teamwork and cooperation – but also holding my own when I don’t want to be pushed.”

T3: Holistic Growth Situations

A Holistic Growth Situation is a cluster of experiences that offers many opportunities for growth in a single integrated activity. For children, such situations include backyard gardening, building projects, amateur theater productions, and family backpacking. Later in life, the repertoire of such situations may expand to include liberal-arts college life, self-sufficient travel, and stimulating work environments.

Holistic Growth Situations have several features in common. They each have an over-arching theme or purpose. They each cover a broad range of Processes, Dimensions, and Participants. They are all deeply experiential. They’re all readily adaptable to an Integral approach. By combining numerous interrelated growth experiences into one comprehensive activity, Holistic Growth Situations leverage our time and effort to produce deep and lasting change.

Ex: “When we work together in the family garden, we learn practical skills of growing things – but also biological science, good work habits, and division of effort. Along the way, we have time for some lighthearted play and lots of internal reflection.”

An increasingly popular type of Holistic Growth Situation is called Place-Based Learning. In this approach, learning arises not just from studying books and other media – but from a rich environment that is structured to produce many interrelated lessons.

Ex: “At school, we first study our biology book to get the concepts. But then we go outdoors to observe what we’ve learned in the real world around us.”

T4: Growth Centers

A Growth Center is a Holistic Growth Situation where people gather together with the explicit intention of developing a particular aspect of growth. Over the course of centuries, at least five types of Growth Centers have developed: the monastery (or modern Meditation Center), the school or university (currently, the creative grade school and the liberal arts college), the health retreat (at present degenerated into beauty spas and fat farms), intentional communities (from Pilgrims, to Amish, to counter-culture communes), and the Growth Center per se ( Esalen-like Growth Centers). A Growth Center is particularly effective at guiding growth since it controls and orchestrates every aspect of the growth environment – thus directing each life activity toward the desired form of development.

The one Growth Center experience common to almost everyone is the school. A creative grade school or high school offers not only academics – but a myriad of activities and relationships for building character, social skills, and non-academic abilities.

Ex: “I attend a very creative elementary school. All our academic subjects use hands-on experience to convey abstract concepts. The extra-curricular activities -- like art, drama, computers, sports, nature study, and big-city field trips – all emphasize individual involvement and personal creativity. They believe in growing the whole person.”

T5: Authorities

Authorities are people whose exceptional knowledge and wisdom is preserved and disseminated through books, art forms, and other media. Authorities on the growth process may include philosophers, self-help gurus, novelists, artists, and filmmakers – anyone whose work pertains to, sheds light on, or contributes to our growth. Because their work is often of high quality, and is readily available, such people are particularly valuable in the growth process.

Ex: “I didn’t get much from home or school. But when I discovered Thoreau, a whole world opened up for me.”

PERSONAL AND INDIVIDUAL GUIDANCE/ORCHESTRATION

Personal and Individual Guidance is the guidance in the growth process we receive from Guides who we choose ourselves, and who work personally with us. The five Modes of Individual Guidance are: Partner/Spouse, Therapist, Spiritual Guide, Other Growth Professionals, and Integral Life Guide – as follows:

T6: Partner/Spouse

A long-term partner or spouse is a special person we choose to share our journey through life. As the relationship progresses, the couple develops (optimally) a deep mutual understanding, a steadfast and compassionate commitment, and an abiding sense of trust – all of which enables them to support and guide each other’s growth over the course of a lifetime. After parenting, the long-term or life-long partner or spouse is probably the most influential, and potentially most beneficial, mode of mutual Guidance and Orchestration.

Ex: “In Jane Austen’s Price and Prejudice, Lizzie works through her aloof pride, and D’Arcy confronts his snobbish prejudice. When they finally resolve their character flaws, they’re ready for a happy marriage.”

T7: Therapist

A Therapist is a professional practitioner -- such as a psychologist, psychiatrist, or counselor – who is trained to help people grow. Such assistance is especially appropriate for deep-seated Restoration Impediments.

Ex: “My counselor has helped me work through some painful hidden memories that had distorted my view of the world.”

T8: Spiritual Guide

A Spiritual Guide is a counselor, pastor, or master with extensive personal experience navigating the higher realms of consciousness – often through prayer, meditation, yoga, Tantra, or other spiritual practices. Such assistance is highly important for maintaining a consistent and diligent spiritual practice.

Ex: “I’m much more consistent and effective in my meditation and contemplation now that I attend the Zen Center twice a week.”

T9: Other Growth Professionals

Other Growth Professionals are practitioners such as teachers, educators, social workers, medical professionals, social activists, religious counselors, even managers and bosses – members of any profession that endeavors to help people grow. Such people are especially valuable as advisors, because they often have real-life experience beyond the narrow confines of psychology or spirituality. In some cases, their contribution to growth will be limited to knowledge and skills they can impart from their own field of expertise. In other cases, however, they may be just as effective (or more effective) at promoting growth as the best professional Therapists (T7) or Spiritual Guides (T8).

“When my college literature professor first introduced me to Moby Dick, I began to recognize that reality functions at multiple levels.”

T10: Integral Life Guide

The Integral Life Guide (or, Whole Life Counselor) is a Growth Professional who is intimately familiar with ADAPT model (or some equivalent), and fully capable of applying it. These Coordinators help us weave ‘Together’ all the diverse strands of Dimensions, Participants, Processes that make up the growth process. Often they will draw on all the other forms of Together-ness discussed in this section. By definition, such people (optimally) provide the most complete and comprehensive program for navigating the Growth Continuum.

Ex: “My Integral Counselor deals equally with the three Internal Passages of Body, Psyche, and Spirit. That focus is balanced with comparable attention to the everyday concerns of Life Passages. When it’s going well, all four Realms weave together into a seamless whole.”

INTERNAL GUIDANCE/ORCHESTRATION

Internal Guidance is the Guidance we provide for ourselves. After absorbing and internalizing the modes of Guidance discussed above, we become progressively more independent, more self-sufficient, more self-regulating, more autonomous, more mature. The two Modes of Internal Guidance are Internal Navigator and Witness – as shown below:

T11: Internal Navigator

The Internal Navigator is the Guide we form within ourselves – by internalizing all the Dimensions, Participants, Processes, and Modes of Together-ness. Progressively, we learn to serve as our own navigator – to move freely and spontaneously among all the spheres of growth with less and less assistance.

Ex: “Over the years, I’ve thoroughly explored many of the Dimensions, Processes, and Participants – using various forms of Guidance and Orchestration. By this point, I’ve internalized all those external Guides, and am increasingly able to navigate my own course.”

T12: Witness

Beyond all the societal and personal Guides, beyond even the Internal Navigator, the great presence of the Witness informs, enfolds, illuminates, and extends all strands of our experience, and all facets of our growth. From an Eastern perspective, that presence may be termed Spirit. From a Western perspective, the Witness is called God.

Ex: “When I enter the higher States of consciousness, I see my whole life as a piece – and the right answers seem so simple.”

Table of Contents

Section A:
ADAPT: NAVIGATING THE GROWTH CONTINUUM

lifetime of voyages to remote and exotic parts of the globe requires an overarching perspective, a Master Plan for exploration. Such a Master Plan subsumes all voyages and explorations under a comprehensive set of concepts, policies, or objectives. In earlier times, objectives might have included establishing trade routes and inter-national relationships, evangelizing primitive peoples, conquering foreign nations and establishing tributary states, founding settlements and colonies, and locating new sources for minerals or luxury goods. Or, the objectives might have been pure exploration and investigation – discovering new lands, charting oceans and coastlines, or finding new plant and animal species.

ADAPT is the Master Plan for our journey through life. The Growth Continuum is like a map of the world – with the Dimensions as coordinates defining trade routes and ports of call to exotic destinations like Ceylon, or Madagascar, or the Bahamas, or the Outer Hebrides. The Processes of Growth are the steamships and sailing vessels that carry us to our destinations. The Participants are the crew, the passengers, and even the stow-aways on those voyages. The Guide is the navigator who helps chart our passage. We ourselves are the captains of our own ship, and bear final responsibility for our ultimate destination.

An accurate map, a sound ship, a entourage of eager voyagers, a skilled navigator – these are the four elements of a successful voyage. In the same way, the Dimensions, the Processes, the Participants, and Together-ness are the essential components of an effective growth program. A truly Integral growth program combines all of these – woven together in a seamless, dynamic whole. The Integral model of human growth is thus best summarized by the acronym ‘ADAP2T’ (pronounced A’-Dapt):

AD = All Dimensions. All 8 Dimensions of the Growth Continuum.

AP = All Processes. All 33 Processes of Human Growth.

AP = All Participants. All 7 Participants in the growth process.

T = Together. The Dimensions, Processes, and Participants not experienced as diffuse, disjointed entities – but coordinated together at a deep, experiential level using all 12 Modes of Orchestration.

Table of Contents

Section I:
IMPEDIMENTS AND RESOLUTIONS

[A detailed summary of many of the major Impediments to growth will be found in Appendix C.]

Impediments are all the ways our journey can go wrong. Our journey can encounter two levels of Impediments – Limitations and Impasses.

Limitations are all the obstacles, delays, and diversions that may impede our journey from its true course. For Odysseus, the Limitations Impediments are all the factors that keep him from returning home. They are the adverse winds that blow his ship off course, the connivings of his rebellious crew, the mind-numbing stupor of the Lotus Eaters, the huge stones thrown by angry Laetrygonian giants attempting to sink his ship, the enticing songs of the Sirens, and the treacherous channel between the blood-thirsty Scylla and the yawning vortex of Charybdis.

Impasses are the even more serious obstacles to our journey – obstacles that produce damage, injury, enchantment, captivity, or death. For Odysseus, the Impasse Impediments are imprisonment in the grisly cave of man-devouring Cyclops, the bewitching enchantments of Circe that turn his crew into animals, the soul-searing descent into the Underworld, the captivating charms of Calypso’s cave, the blasphemous crime of slaughtering the Sun God’s cattle, the storms of vengeful Poseidon that finally sink his ship and destroy his crew.

In our journey, each Impediment has its own corresponding Resolution. For Odysseus, the Resolutions include Odysseus’ clever stratagem to escape from Cyclops’ cave, the potion brought by Hermes to neutralize Circe’s charms, the cords that bind Odysseus to the mast so he won’t succumb to the Siren’s beguiling call, the healing hospitality of the Phaecians who nurse Odysseus back to health after his shipwreck, the Great Bow that slaughters the rapacious suitors, Athena’s pact of peace that placates the gods and heals civil strife.

In technical language, Impediments are all the ways the growth process can be diverted, distorted, neglected, split off, repressed, denied, ignored, or avoided. Actualization Impediments (also called Limitations, Guidance Impediments, or Human Potential Impediments) are overt difficulties or challenges faced by relatively healthy people. Restoration Impediments (also called Impasses, Therapeutic Impediments, or Pathologies) are submerged or subconscious difficulties suffered by people with ‘problems.’ Virtually every Feature of growth – every Dimension, Participant, Process, and Mode of Together-ness -- has potential Actualization Impediments which can limit its effectiveness. On the other hand, there are relatively few types of Restoration Impediment.

Resolutions are all the ways we overcome Impediments. Although there are a wide variety of Impediments, they may all be overcome through a limited number of Resolutions. For Actualization Impediments, the primary mode of Resolution is (as might be expected) Actualization. For Restoration Impediments, the primary mode of Resolution is Restoration.

In this section we describe Actualization Impediments and Restoration Impediments in detail – along with their corresponding Resolutions. Please refer also to Appendix C, where extensive examples of each type of Impediment will be found.

IA: Limitations in the Actualization Cycle

As discussed in the Actualization and Restoration section (D7), growth is the process of Actualizing our Human Potential in all four Domains – Dimensions, Processes, Participants, and Modes of Together-ness. Actualization can be limited or restricted if regions of our Human Potential remain unexplored, vacant, deficient, diverted, stultified, or distorted. Where Actualization fails to take place, we’re left with Un-actualized Potential, or Unrealized Opportunities – what we call Limitations. Just as Actualization takes place in a four-phase cycle, Limitations can occur at any of the four phases:

1. Recognition. We may fail to notice or attach sufficient importance to a significant opportunity for growth.

Ex: “ When my girlfriend asked for more commitment, I didn’t realize how much my response would affect our relationship.”

2. Engagement. We may choose to avoid the opportunity, or engage only tepidly in it.

Ex: “I realized how much commitment meant to her, but I was afraid to take the leap. Instead, I tried to placate her with half-hearted promises.”

3. Breakthrough. We may try to meet the challenge offered by the growth opportunity, but fail to do so.

Ex: When we moved in together, we found we really didn’t have much in common – and couldn’t stand each other’s hang-ups.”

4. Integration. We may have a breakthrough growth experience, but never integrate it into our identity – or we may integrate it improperly.

Ex: “Since developing a relationship proved to be so much fun, I decided to embark on a whole series of relationships. I’m in love with romance!”

The human personality is amazingly resilient and pliable. However, if such Limitations persist long enough, they become frozen, ossified, or petrified. Our identity is then atrophied or stunted – what we call Blighted. So long as the personality is not too Blighted, these Limitations can be counteracted by Guidance and Orchestration. Guidance & Orchestration can be facilitated by a Counselor, Coach, Coordinator, Orchestrator, or Guide – using any of our 33 Processes (limited use of Self-Conscious Development).

IR: Impasses in the Actualization Cycle

Beyond the normal Limitations in the Actualization process, there may be circumstances in which the Actualization Cycle is stymied, obstructed, blocked, or stuck. We call such situations Pathologies, Restoration Impediments, or Impasses. Impasses often originate in the earliest Stages of life – when the child is least defended and has the fewest tools for correct interpretation. Impasses can be created during any of the four phases of the Actualization Cycle, or through a combination of all four phases:

1. Recognition. At an early age, we may not have the discernment to recognize a growth opportunity – or may easily misinterpret it.

Ex: “ When the birth constrictions started (while I was in the womb), the pressure felt so violent it seemed like I was being assaulted.”

2. Engagement. We may not have sufficient volition to decide on a course of action, and may be swept along by circumstances.

Ex: “As I moved up the birth canal, I struggled for space and breath, while all the time feeling squashed and smothered.”

3. Breakthrough. We may not be able to handle the challenge – or may find it so traumatic we never want to face it again.

Ex: “I actually couldn’t get through the birth canal, so they ended up performing a cesarean to get me out. I never want to go through anything like that again.”

4. Integration. In our immature state, we may drastically misinterpret the traumatic situation, or exaggerate its significance, or draw mistaken conclusions.

Ex: “After that horrendous birth experience, they laid me on a cold operating table, and then put me away in a noisy nursery without my mom. Is that what I can expect from life?”

Painful or traumatic memories are often submerged deep within the subconscious – where we vainly attempt to isolate or expunge them. They often manifest themselves indirectly through pernicious and malevolent Sub-Personalities (Shadow Selves or Gremlins). These Sub-Personalities are mini-identities whose worldview was formed by these traumatic experiences, and who therefore have a very distorted view of life. The Sub-Personalities are those little voices inside that tell us that we’re no good, or that everyone’s against us, or that things will never work out. They therefore function as hidden saboteurs of healthy growth. Thus, they are the source of very formidable Impasses.

IRR: Resolutions for Impasses

Since Impasses are so deeply buried and so intransigent, they are generally not amenable to the Guidance form of Resolution. They require a comparatively intensive process of treatment called Therapy. Therapy is the process of restoring the Actualization Cycle to functionality, so that normal growth may resume again. Therapy often has its own four-phase process -- what we call the Restoration Cycle – consisting of Resurrecting, Confronting, Reexperiencing, and Reintegrating. (see D7 for explanation and examples)

Such Resolutions are often facilitated with the assistance of a trained, licensed therapist or healing professional – such as a clinical psychologist, psychiatrist, or doctor -- using Conscious Development Processes (#6/27-31) such as Body Therapies, Psychotherapy, and Psycho-biologic Techniques.

Table of Contents

Division 3:
TOWARD A REVISED MODEL
OF HUMAN GROWTH

In this Division, we outline the steps needed to create a revised model of human development. We begin by explaining why the right model is essential. Next, we state some important caveats regarding the comparisons that follow. Then, we make detailed comparisons between ADAPT and Wilber -- to highlight potential areas of revision. Finally, we suggest a series of steps for revising the current model – using AQAL and ADAPT as a foundation.

HOW JOURNEYS GO WRONG

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A good masterplan is the most important prerequisite for a successful journey. That masterplan is built from four components – the map, the ship, the voyagers, and the navigator. A less-than-successful voyage will result if any of the four components is deficient.

If our map is not correct or complete, the voyage may take the wrong course, or may embark on too arduous or circuitous a route. The captain may not be prepared for what he finds when he arrives at his destination – sheer cliffs, or searing heat, or hostile natives. Likewise, if the ship is not well-chosen, or well-maintained, it may not take him where he needs to go – over rocky shoals, through narrow inlets, over heavy seas, or across the doldrums where sails hang limp. Additionally, if the crew is inexperienced or uncooperative, if the passengers are unruly or overly demanding, or if an on-board saboteur is disrupting the operation, the ship’s progress will be impeded. Furthermore, if the navigator is misinformed, or confused, or incompetent, the ship’s course may not be well-plotted or well-steered. The navigator may fail to take into account perilous hazards, or may allow the ship to wander off-course, or may miss the destined port altogether.

WHY THE BEST MODEL IS ESSENTIAL

Let’s examine how ‘map,’ ‘ship,’ ‘voyagers,’ or ‘navigator’ can fall short in the field of human growth.

Inadequate map

An inadequate ‘map’ for the Growth Continuum may cause our growth to be limited or distorted. We may focus only on certain Stages of life, while neglecting others (D1). We might not understand how to get from one Stage to the next (D1/2a). We may mistake primitive or immature States for true enlightenment (D1/2e). We may emphasize breakthroughs and Peak Experiences at the expense of permanent transformation (D3). We may neglect the mundane but necessary reality of ordinary life activities (D4a). We might not recognize the commensurate physical transformations that must accompany all development at the psychological level (D4c). We may ignore certain key life Arenas – like career, or finances, or health (D5a). We might concentrate on contemplation and meditation, when we really just need to get a life (D5d). We might focus only on internal, personal issues – while disregarding the implications for the other three Quadrants (D6a). We may accentuate human potential, when we first need to resolve deep-seated personal problems (D7). We might not balance and integrate our various paths of growth, leaving ourselves lopsided and disjointed (D8).

Inadequate fleet.

An inadequate ‘fleet’ of Processes may limit our ability to address key issues of growth. Over the course of centuries, the 33 Processes have been developed to help people implement certain specific aspects of their growth. If a particular Process is missing, or deficient, or distorted during a person’s upbringing, that Process must be revisited (in some form) later in life and applied much as it should have been in the first place.

For instance, if we lacked adequate nursing and cuddling as an infant, we may need to fill that void with nurturing experiences later in life (PR1/3). If we were sheltered and over-protected as a child, we may need to summon up courage to face real-life challenges – like jobs and relationships (PR2/7). If we never learned appropriate habits of hygiene or school study, we may have to learn them properly by training ourselves all over again (PR3/10). If we never learned to plan and orchestrate , we may need to learn anew how to arrange our various life activities (PR4/19). If we grew up in a blighted environment with no opportunity of creative expression, we may need to rekindle the creative spark through art and music (PR5/25). If our home and community disparaged any conscious form of growth – like psychotherapy or spirituality – we may need to overcome our suspicions and seek appropriate assistance (PR6/29, 31). If our lives have always been filled with scattered activities and random experiences, we may need to knit them together through an Integral vision (PR7/33).

If our growth model lacks any of the 33 Processes, we may never be able to visit the deficient Processes, and the voids may never be filled.

Inadequate voyagers.

An inadequate ‘entourage’ of Participants may limit our growth to certain aspects of our Self, while ignoring or depreciating others. We may never recognize the characteristic Impasses – where the Experienced Self gets stuck at a particular phase of the Transition Cycle (P1). We may concentrate on our growth as individuals – but ignore the implications for our intimate relationship, or for the dynamics of our project team at work (P2). We might interpret certain behavior as inconsiderate or neurotic – when it is only typical of a certain Enneagram Role (P3). We might develop our creative Functions, while disregarding basic habit routines that simplify and streamline everyday life (P4). We might unrealistically expect the rebellious firebrands of the Prophetic Generation to behave like docile, compliant Civics (P5). We may never learn to cope with irrational outbursts and hidden insecurities caused by our inner ‘Gremlins’ (P6). We might never recognize any personal identity higher than the ego – and therefore remain bound to the material plane (P7).

Inadequate navigator

Without an adequate set of ‘navigators’ guiding our life journey, our efforts may take the wrong course, or be directed toward the wrong objectives. We may never recognize how crucial our role as Parents is, in the development of our children (T1). We may never situate ourselves is a community that shares our values and offers sound values for our family (T2). We may not make the effort to place our children (or ourselves) in the most ideal Holistic Growth Situations – especially in schools that endeavor to grow the whole person (T3, 4). We may live only in the moment – never availing ourselves of the wisdom provided by great Authorities of the past (T5). Likewise, we may never recognize how crucial it is to choose the right lifetime partner (T6). We may not know when we should avail ourselves of a good therapist or spiritual guide (T7, 8). We may never become aware that Guides exist who can help us integrate and orchestrate every strand of our growth (T10). And finally, we may not recognize when to relinquish external guidance, and begin to stand on our own two feet (T11, 12).

We are by no means suggesting that Wilber’s model lacks all the components described here -- or that AQAL or ILP would cause these particular distortions or deficiencies. However, we are saying this: Any model that is incorrect or incomplete is likely to produce gaps and misconceptions that can limit and distort the growth process. It is therefore crucial that we choose a very well-conceived model, and follow it diligently.

CONSTRUCTIVE COMPARISONS

In the next section and in Appendices A1-3, we offer some potentially controversial comparisons between our ADAPT model and Ken Wilber’s AQAL (and its derivative ILP). Before proceeding, please note some important caveats and qualifications:

  • Refinement, not replacement. Our purpose here is to reconsider, elucidate, refine, revise, expand, and update Wilber’s admirable work – not to challenge, contest, bash, denigrate, debunk, replace, or supercede it.
  • Personal growth only. ADAPT is a model of personal growth, while AQAL is a much more general model of the structure of reality. Our comparisons pertain only to Wilber’s application of the AQAL model to human growth.
  • Incomplete information. Comparisons are tentative, subject to more detailed information, especially regarding the Processes offered through Integral Life Practice and Integral Institute.[30] [31]
  • Complementary, not competitive. For illustrative and dramatic purposes, we have sometimes set ADAPT and AQAL (or ILP) against each other, as if in competition. In fact, the two models are valuable complementary endeavors striving toward a common goal of personal evolution.
  • Provocative, not confrontive. To stimulate interest and discussion, we sometimes use language that is intentionally provocative. This is a rhetorical device, and no offense is intended.
  • Simplified and abbreviated. For the sake of brevity and clarity, many points of comparison are simplified and schematized. For more detailed treatments of various topics, please refer to our publications in the Resources section.
  • Collaborative effort. The ADAPT model presented here, along with the comparisons to the AQAL model, represent a working hypothesis intended to initiate dialog, not to proclaim a definitive conclusion. Any valid revision of Wilber’s model will ultimately require the collaborative efforts of many authorities on the Integral worldview.

RE-EXAMINING KEN WILBER

In this section, we venture into some very deep water. We suggest that many of Wilber’s basic concepts regarding human growth are due for serious reconsideration, and perhaps revision.

In our view, Ken Wilber’s AQAL model (and its ILP derivative) is highly impressive and extremely valuable – but not sufficiently inclusive, balanced, differentiated, clear, consistent, unambiguous, explicit, and correct for optimal usefulness in implementing a program for personal growth.[32] [33] The four Dimensions in the AQAL model lack significant elements we consider essential in our own nine Dimensions. Likewise, the one Participant named in the AQAL model does not highlight the most important entities discussed in Wilber’s own writings. Additionally, the nine Process categories (‘Modules’) of Wilber’s Integral Life Practice and their underlying Methodologies are somewhat sparse in comparison to our own comprehensive list of seven Process Themes and 33 Processes. Furthermore, Wilber offers only limited mechanisms for coordinating and orchestrating these diverse elements. We are no match for Wilber and his stellar array of colleagues – but we respectfully submit that the venerable AQAL Model (and its ILP derivative) is showing signs of age and is due for a face-lift – maybe even some reconstructive surgery.

ADAPT vs. Wilber: Comparing Positions

To substantiate these contentions, we make Parameter-by-Parameter comparisons of the correspondences and Divergences between Wilber’s position[34] and the ADAPT model. (These comparisons will be found in Tables A1-3, ADAPT and Wilber Compared.) The comparisons are offered – not as a way to ‘prove Wilber wrong,’ or to the tout the advantages of ADAPT – but as a way to highlight areas where Wilber’s positions might deserve further examination.

As you read through the comparisons, note the high number of Parameters on which ADAPT and Wilber diverge – and the degree of that Divergence (most easily seen in Table A2). Of the total 140 comparisons, our analysis indicates at least 73 comparisons where the two models have differing positions -- as against only 67 (categories 1 +2) in which they are in total or substantial agreement. In our view, all 73 divergent positions are especially deserving of further examination.

Note also the large number of comparisons in which the authors have a very high Confidence in the ADAPT position (most easily seen in Table A3). Of the 140 comparisons, the authors have a Confidence level of 90% or better on 107 of ADAPT’s positions. Of those, 57 are positions on which ADAPT and Wilber agree either explicitly or implicitly -- while 50 are positions where ADAPT and Wilber diverge. Therefore, there are (in the authors’ opinion) at least 50 positions where Wilber’s position is most in doubt.

Among all the comparisons, our investigation suggests at least 12 degrees of potential modification – ranging from total agreement with Wilber’s existing position to significantly differing conceptions. The degrees of Divergence are listed below, along with the number of instances of each:

  1. Substantial agreement (55 instances). Wilber positions with which ADAPT is in total or substantial agreement. May include re-labeling or re-naming.
  2. Rendering explicit (12 instances). Positions implicit in Wilber’s work, that are rendered explicit by ADAPT.
  3. Consolidation of concepts/versions (2 instances). Concepts or versions scattered about in Wilber’s work – that are collected or consolidated by ADAPT.
  4. Increased or broadened emphasis (4 instances). Wilber positions that receive significantly greater emphasis in ADAPT.
  5. Restatement, reorganization, or simplification of concept (6 instances). Concepts that are restated or reorganized by ADAPT for greater completeness or clarity.
  6. Differentiation (10 instances). Concepts that are differentiated into multiple levels or structures by ADAPT.
  7. Expanded, extended, reinterpreted, or broadened conception, scope, role, array, or applicability (21 instances). Features whose scope or function is significantly expanded or extended by ADAPT.
  8. Broadened or alternative methodology (3 instances). Occasions where ADAPT uses a significantly different or modified methodology for deriving and interpreting concepts.
  9. Shift in emphasis or conception (4 instances). Occasions where ADAPT substantially shifts the emphasis from one concept or theme to another.
  10. Elevation of role, status, importance, or validity (4 instances). Concepts whose significance, role or status in the development process is significantly elevated by ADAPT.
  11. Added concept, Parameter, characteristic, or proposed Feature (17 instances). Concepts and Parameters introduced by ADAPT which have no parallel in Wilber.
  12. Differing conception (2 instances). Substantially different or conflicting positions between Wilber and ADAPT.

Tables A1-3 compare ADAPT’s position and that of Ken Wilber on each Parameter of human growth. After each Parameter, we state the type of modification ADAPT proposes for Wilber’s system, then the nature of that modification. To help the reader weigh the alternatives, we indicate our percentage ‘degree of Confidence’ in the validity of ADAPT’s position.[35] For simplicity, we merely describe the differences between the two positions, without any attempt to defend or justify either one. Comments are necessarily abbreviated and simplified. For details, see our articles listed in the Resources section.

These Tables are important, not just for its specific comparisons, but for their general implications. The existence of so many Parameters that offer differing interpretations suggests strongly that the model is ready for serious reconsideration and reexamination. This study will have accomplished a major objective if the reader’s eyes are opened to serious possibility of an alternative model.

To reiterate, we are not proposing ADAPT as a definitive replacement for Wilber’s model. We are merely using ADAPT to reveal instances where Wilber’s model may need further examination. Furthermore, as stated at the beginning, our intention here is to reconsider, elucidate, refine, revise, reorganize, expand, and consolidate Ken Wilber’s admirable work – not to challenge, contest, bash, denigrate, debunk, replace, or supercede it. Ken Wilber is a Titan on whose shoulders all our efforts stand.

BUILDING THE NEXT
INTEGRAL OPERATING SYSTEM

According to the diligent researcher Brad Reynolds,[36] Ken Wilber’s Integral Operating System has evolved through five phases. As they apply human development and much simplified, the phases are as follows:

Phase 1. The Spectrum of Consciousness (1973-77).
Outlined Stages and States of development from conception to enlightenment.

Phase 2. Transition (1978-83).
Discovered the Pre-Trans- Fallacy: Overthrew the ‘recaptured goodness’ or ‘return to Eden’ model of the Romantics.

Phase 3. The Integral Vision (1983-94).
Created the first Integral model – consisting of three Dimensions (Levels, Lines, States) and one Participant (Self).

Phase 4. The Four Quadrants & the Post-Modern Critique (1995-2000).
Added the Dimension of Quadrants, and applied the Quadrants to the misconceptions of Post-Modernism.

Phase 5. Public Outreach (2000-on).
Began promoting the Integral revolution through education and training.

The foregoing phases represent a series of upgrades to the basic software – where, for the most part, the fundamental components remain intact, and new features, emphases, applications, and forms of validation have been added. It appears that Ken Wilber’s Integral Operating System, Version One, is now essentially complete.

As this study has demonstrated, however, Wilber’s venerable system has begin to show numerous problems – everything from annoying glitches to fundamental design flaws. Maybe we’re beyond just a fine-tune: Maybe the operating system now needs a major overhaul from the ground up? Maybe we should start building Integral Operating System, Version Two? Maybe its time for AQAL, The Next Generation?

To participate in this endeavor, there are several steps that you can take.

  • Download the Word Version. If you have not already done so, download the MS Word version of this study – so you can add your comments and emendations directly to the document.
  • Embrace change. Recognize that any Operating System – even Wilber’s – is subject to revision, and eventually to major overhaul. During the period of 30-plus years while Wilber developed his IOS, Microsoft morphed through a whole series of platforms – first DOS, then Windows, then XP, and now Vista. It’s reasonable to assume that Wilber’s system will undergo similar radical revisions. As we indicated in our facetious quote about Wilber’s ‘tombstone,’[37] Wilber welcomes these revisions, and assumes they are inevitable.
  • Acknowledge the importance of the right model. Recognize that the right model is the essential foundation for any effective program of growth. If you doubt this, revisit the section, Why the Best Model is Essential, page 46.
  • Acknowledge the limitations of the Wilber model. Revisit the section Re-examining Ken Wilber, page 50. Note the number of instances where ADAPT diverges from Wilber. Recognize that these are ‘open issues’ that cast doubt on the adequacy of the Wilber model.
  • Compare alternatives. Revisit Table A1, ADAPT and Wilber Compared, page 57. Go through the comparisons of the ADAPT and Wilber models. Ask yourself a series of questions for each Parameter: Are the two positions characterized accurately? Which position appears more valid? Is there a third position that is superior to both of them?
  • Begin with the easiest resolutions. Visit Table A2, the ‘Compared’ table reorganized by Divergence, page 74. Presumably, the easiest ‘open issues’ to resolve will be those with the least discrepancy. Beginning with Divergence #1, go through all the comparisons again – to reconsider which position is more valid, or what third position might be preferable.
    For Divergence #1, the positions on which ADAPT and Wilber are in ‘substantial agreement,’ ask yourself: Do the two positions in fact agree? Do you the reader also agree with their position? Now go on to Divergence #2, Making Explicit. Do you agree that ADAPT and Wilber are essentially saying the same thing -- the first explicitly, the second implicitly? Do you the reader agree with their position? Continue examining the comparisons and drawing your own conclusions, proceeding from least to greatest Divergence.
  • Assess by certainty. Visit Table A3, the ‘Compared’ table reorganized by degree of Confidence, page 90. The alternative ADAPT interpretations most worthy of consideration will be those where ADAPT is the most certain of its position. Beginning with 95% Confidence, go through all the comparisons again – to reconsider which position is more valid, or what third position might be preferable. If ADAPT assigns a high degree of Confidence to a given Parameter, and if you had previously come to a different conclusion, ADAPT’s position might be worth considering all over again.
  • Evaluate the structure. Now that you have compared interpretations, go back and examine the structure itself. Examine the system of organization we have used to categorize and compare the various positions on human growth -– its Parameters and sub-Parameters, its Domains, Features, and Impediments. From your perspective, is the structure itself valid? Does it include all the essential Parameters? Are the Parameters organized in the proper order and relationship? Has the structure left out any important elements? Are there any Parameters that are unnecessary, or mis-categorized, or mis-conceived? Does the structure, in short, offer a comprehensive framework for the investigation of human development? Where might it be improved?
  • Draw conclusions. From the above investigations, draw your own conclusions – regarding each Parameter and the system as a whole. If you have downloaded the MS Word version of this study, make your comments and emendations directly on the document file, using the Insert/Comment and Markup functions. Please email us a copy of your modified file, so we can incorporate your suggestions. If your modifications are substantial, feel free to publish an article on Integral World.net.
  • Celebrate. We live at the dawn of the Integral Age – a time when humankind is taking a quantum leap toward understanding the meaning of life and the purpose of existence. This study of human development is our way of mapping out this miraculous journey. Exult in your good fortune at being born to such an auspicious time, and plunge with us into the Growth Continuum.

Table of Contents

Division 4:
APPENDICES

Table of Contents

Table A1:
ADAPT AND WILBER COMPARED
Organized by Domains

This Table is designed to help the reader recognize the fine points of Ken Wilber’s positions on human growth – and to reveal instances where they may due for reexamination. The Table shows a point-by-point comparison of the correspondences and Divergences between Wilber’s position (as defined primiarily by his statements in Integral Psychology) and the ADAPT model – organized by Domain and Feature. The number of comparisons for each Domain and Impediment are as follows:

1. ADAPT. 6 instances.

2. Dimensions. 58 instances.

3. Processes. 18 instances.

4. Participants. 23 instances.

5. Together-ness. 18 instances.

6. Impediments. 17 instances.

We observe 12 degrees of Divergence between the two models – ranging from total agreement with Wilber’s existing position to significantly differing conceptions. The number of instances of each is as follows:

1. Substantial agreement. 55 instances.

2. Rendering explicit. 12 instances.

3. Consolidation of concepts/versions. 2 instances.

4. Increased or broadened emphasis. 4 instances.

5. Restatement, reorganization, or simplification of concept. 6 instances.

6. Differentiation. 10 instances.

7. Expanded, extended, reinterpreted, or broadened conception, scope, role, array, or applicability. 21 instances.

8. Broadened or alternative methodology. 3 instances.

9. Shift in emphasis or conception. 4 instances.

10. Elevation of role, status, importance, or validity. 4 instances.

11. Added concept, Parameter, characteristic, proposed Feature. 17 instances.

12. Differing conception. 2 instances.

Note the high number of Parameters on which ADAPT and Wilber diverge – and the degree of that Divergence. Of the total 140 comparisons, our analysis indicates at least 73 comparisons where the two models have differing positions -- as against only 67 comparisons (categories 1 + 2) in which they are in total or substantial agreement. These Divergences indicate areas in which the Wilber model may need re-examination, and perhaps revision.

The Table contains six columns:

  • Col. 1, Parameter number. The letter/number of the Parameter from the ADAPT model of human growth.
  • Col. 2, Parameter name. The name of the Parameter from the ADAPT model of human growth.
  • Col. 3, Type of ADAPT modification. The Type of modification made by ADAPT in Wilber’s position.
  • Col. 4, Divergence number. A number indicating the degree of Divergence between ADAPT and Wilber.
  • Col. 5, Nature of ADAPT modification. How ADAPT’s position on this Parameter differs from Wilber’s.[38]
  • Col. 6, Confidence in ADAPT position. Our degree of Confidence in the validity of ADAPT’s position – expressed as a percentage.[39]

 
Number Parameter Type of ADAPT modification Divergence number Nature of ADAPT modification Confidence in ADAPT position
A ADAPT     NUMBER OF INSTANCES: 6  
A ADAPT Expanded structure 7 ADAPT provides a substantially expanded structure for organizing and categorizing the Parameters of the Growth Dynamic. 90%
A ADAPT Reorganization, revision, & expansion of conception 7 ADAPT substantially revises and expands the number and character of Features that define human growth. 95%
A ADAPT Differentiation 6 ADAPT differentiates the Features of the growth model into four major Domains – Dimensions, Participants, Processes, and Orchestrators (‘To-getherness’). (In our terminology, Wilber’s AQAL model consists of four Dimensions and one Participant.) 95%
Aa ADAPT: Growth Continuum Substantial agreement 1 ADAPT agrees that the Growth Continuum is the manifestation of a great morphogenetic field of development, and that mankind’s greatest drive is to actualize that Continuum through one’s own personal growth. ADAPT names that field the Growth Continuum to emphasize its function in human development. 80%
Ac ADAPT: Methodology Broadened methodology 8 Wilber’s positions appear largely derived from the psychological literature, the perennial traditions, and descriptions of therapeutic practice. ADAPT adds to these, further derivations from professional and personal experience -- including counseling clients, teaching school, studying imaginative literature, extensive personal growth experience, and raising children.[40] 90%
Ac ADAPT: Methodology Methodology – extended metaphor 8 ADAPT adds the journey (esp. Odysseus) as a consistent, overarching metaphorical parallel to the growth process – both to illustrate important points and as an analytical source for further insights. 80%
D DIMENSIONS     NUMBER OF INSTANCES: 58  
D Dimensions Expanded conception 7 ADAPT expands the total Dimensions to eight – and adds several sub-Dimensions. (see D-sections below) (In our terminology, AQAL contains four of these Dimensions.) 90%
D1 Stage Growth Substantial agreement 1 Both agree that Stages are periods of horizontal Translation and Assimilation – times when we are becoming better at activities we already know how to do. 95%
D1 Stage Growth Differentiation 6 ADAPT differentiates Wilber’s Stages into two phases of the growth sequence – Stages and Transitions. (see D2 and D1/2) 95%
D1a Stages/Individual Agreement 1 Both agree that individual growth occurs by progression through a series of Stages. 95%
D2 Transition Growth Substantial agreement 1 Both agree that Transitions are periods of vertical Transformation and Discovery – times when we are becoming something we’ve never been before. 95%
D1/2 Developmental Sequence Rendering explicit 2 ADAPT makes explicit what is implicit in Wilber’s work (especially in his Tables): Growth occurs through a series of alternating Stages and Transitions. (see D1) 95%
D1/2a Dev Sequence: Transition Cycle Restatement of concept 5 For clarity, ADAPT restates Wilber’s three-phase Fulcrum[41] as a four-phase Transition Cycle. Since Wilber’s term ‘fulcrum’ can be ambiguous (both a ‘milestone’ and a pivot point), ADAPT renames the process the Transition Cycle. 90%
D1/2b Fundamental Developmental Sequence Rendering explicit 2 ADAPT renders explicit a growth sequence that is implicit in Wilber’s Tables (especially the vertical coordinate displayed on each page).[42] 85%
D1/2b Fundamental Developmental Sequence Extension of concept 7 For completeness, ADAPT adds to the FDS a step before birth (Heritage) and after death (Legacy). 90%
D1/2b FDS: Clusters Substantial agreement 1 Both agree that the FDS can be condensed into 12 developmental groupings. Since Wilber’s term ‘fulcrum’ can be ambiguous, ADAPT renames the groupings as Clusters. 90%
D1/2c The Chakras Expanded conception 7 ADAPT re-conceives Wilber’s ‘fulcrums’ as Chakras -- to encompass not just the Western concept of a consolidated FDS, but the Eastern concept of energy phenomena manifested simultaneously in the three internal Realms of Body, Psyche, and Spirit. (See also D3b) 70%
D1/2d Generation Cycle Added Dimension 11 ADAPT proposes an additional Dimension, the Generation Cycle -- as the cultural equivalent of the Transition Cycle for individuals. 60%
D1/2e Dev Sequence/ Collective Expanded concept 7 ADAPT expands Collective growth beyond just Cultural -- to include all groups from couples, to families, to workgroups, to teams, to communities, to cultures. (see P2) 90%
D1/2e Dev Sequence/ Cultural Substantial agreement 1 Both agree that Cultures follow a Stage-related path of development similar to individuals, but spread over eons of time. (see P2) 80%
D1/2e Dev Sequence/ Cultural Substantial agreement 1 Both agree that Spiral Dynamics is a prime example of Culture Passages. 80%
D3 State Growth Substantial agreement 1 ADAPT agrees that there are four higher States of consciousness – Psychic, Subtle, Causal, and Non-dual. 90%
D3 State Growth [under development] Expansion of concept 7 In addition to Wilber’s five possible conceptions of Spirit,[43] ADAPT suggests two others – that Spirit may be a distinct Realm (D4), or a distinct Dimension (D3). 70%
D3 State Growth Differing conception 12 ADAPT views Spirit, not only as an Upper-Left internal experience, but as an Upper-Right objective reality. 80%
D3a Natural States Agreement 1 Both agree that Natural States are the four normal or basic States of consciousness – waking/gross, dreaming/subtle, deep sleep/causal, and nondual. 90%
D3b Altered States Agreement 1 Both agree that Altered States are non-normal, sometimes-induced States – such as meditative States, mystical experiences, Peak Experiences, drug-induced States, and near-death experiences. 90%
D3c Peak Experiences Agreement 1 Both agree that Peak Experiences are temporary Altered States, which must be converted to Permanent States (Traits) to have a lasting effect on growth. (see D3d) 95%
D4 Realms Substantial agreement 1 ADAPT agrees that consciousness can be divided into three ‘realms,’ ‘spheres,’ or ‘domains’ – equivalent to Wilber’s ‘sensibilia’/ ‘physio-biosphere’, ‘intelligibilia’/ ‘noosphere’, and ‘transcendentalia’/ ‘theosphere’. 90%
D4 Realms Restatement and Simplification 5 ADAPT restates and simplifies the three Realms into Body, Psyche, and Spirit.[44] 80%
D4 Realms: Passages Making explicit 2 ADAPT names and makes explicit that Passages are the process of moving through the Stages of the Growth Continuum in each Realm. 95%
D4 Realms: Architecture of Self Differing conception 12 ADAPT’s conception of the Architecture of Self differs significantly from that of Wilber. Wilber employs an ‘archeological’ Stacked Model,[45] while ADAPT uses a ‘retrofitted’ Multi-Functionality Model. (see D1/2c) 70%
D4 Realm Growth Expanded application 7 ADAPT emphasizes the potential for growth in all four Realms. Wilber focuses almost exclusively on two of these – what we call Psyche and Spirit.[46] 90%
D4a Realms: Life Passages Added Realm 11 ADAPT adds Life Passages as the external manifestation of Wilber’s ‘gross’ realm. 95%
D4a Realms: Life Passages Elevation of role or status 10 ADAPT elevates Life Passages to the status of true growth – i.e. an alternating sequence of Translations and Transformations – rather than Translation alone.[47] 95%
D4b Realms: Psyche Passages Explicit categorization 2 ADAPT makes explicit what is implicit in Wilber’s Tables – that the psychological ‘Lines’ may be conveniently collected into a distinct Realm we call Psyche Passages. 95%
D4c Realms: Body Passages (experienced) Substantial agreement 1 Both agree that the body can be viewed from two perspectives -- the internal, Upper-Left, Experienced Body, and the external, Upper-Right Observed Body.[48] 95%
D4c Realms: Body Passages (experienced) [under development] Added Realm 11 In consonance with the Eastern conception of the Chakras (D1/2c), ADAPT proposes to add Body Passages as a separate Realm of growth. (See also PR 6/27) 75%
D4d Realms: Spirit Passages [under development] Making explicit 2 A substantial proportion of Wilber’s Tables outline ‘spiritual’ development sequences. ADAPT makes explicit that these may be collected into a distinct Realm. (but see D3) 80%
D5 Arenas Differentiation 6 ADAPT differentiates Wilber’s ‘Lines’ into the nested categories of Arenas, Lines, Studies, and Issues. 90%
D5 Arena Growth Substantial agreement 1 Both agree on Differential Growth -- that growth may take place at different rates in different Arenas, and that one may therefore be at different Stages in each. 95%
D5a Life Arenas Added set of Arenas 11 Corresponding to the added Realm of Life Passages, ADAPT outlines a set of Life Arenas – using categories familiar to the counseling and coaching professions. 95%
D5b Psyche Arenas Substantial agreement 1 All the Psyche Arenas listed by ADAPT, except D5b Leadership, are specific ‘Lines’ discussed by Wilber. 90%
D5b Psyche Arenas Substantial agreement 1 Wilber and ADAPT substantially agree as to the content of each Psyche Arena. 90%
D5c Body Arenas (experienced) [under development] Added set of Arenas 11 Corresponding to the proposed Realm of Body Passages, ADAPT proposes a set of Body Arenas – to be drawn from the fields of alternative medicine, body-oriented therapies, and body-oriented spiritual practices. 75%
D5d Spirit Arenas [under development] Substantial agreement 1 ADAPT agrees there may be several Spiritual Arenas in which such growth takes place. (see also D4d) 80%
D5d1 Spirit Arenas: Archetypes and myths Agreement 1 ADAPT agrees that Archetypes and Myths are the product of an archaic Stage of cultural development – and that much so-called ‘archetypal’ thinking may be infected by the Pre-/Trans- Fallacy. (see also IA-D1/2e) 90%
D5d1 Spirit Arenas: Archetypes and myths [under development] Elevation of concept 10 In addition to the above, ADAPT views Archetypes and Myths as a subtle language that is potentially useful for describing, apprehending, accessing, and evoking many States of consciousness – including the higher States (cf. Process 5/26). 80%
D6a Quadrants of Growth Agreement 1 Both agree that any growth experience may be viewed from four different perspectives, or Quadrants – inner/individual, outer/individual, inner/collective, and outer/ collective. 95%
D6a Quadrants of Growth Agreement 1 Both agree that a complete and Integral development program must approach growth from all four perspectives. 95%
D6b Vectors of Growth Extended concept 7 In addition to Wilber’s four perspectives of the Quadrants, ADAPT proposes four paths of growth – inner and outer Realms, combined with Individual and Collective Participants. 90%
D6b Vectors of Growth Shift in emphasis 9 ADAPT emphasizes all four Realms of growth in any truly Integral growth program. 90%
D6c Ascending/Descending & Polarities Substantial agreement 1 Both agree that growth can be experienced as movement upward and outward, but also downward and inward. 95%
D6d Cyclic flow Shift in conception and emphasis 9 ADAPT conceives of growth as a tree-like oscillation or cyclic movement between Polarities -- not as a ladder-like upward spiral or trajectory. 80%
D6e Evolution/Involution Substantial agreement 7 Both agree that growth cycles through twin Polarities -- an ascending arc of Evolution, then a descending arc of Involution.[49] 80%
D6e Evolution/Involution Extended concept 7 While Wilber focuses on the spiritual aspect of Evolution/ Involution, ADAPT applies this concept to all four Realms. 80%
D7 Actualization & Restoration Growth Rendering explicit 2 ADAPT renders explicit that growth is Actualization of one’s Human Potential. 95%
D7 Actualization & Restoration Growth Rendering explicit 2 ADAPT makes explicit that there are two distinct approaches to the growth process – Actualization for basically healthy people, and Restoration for those with ‘problems.’[50] (see Impediments section) 90%
D7 Actualization & Restoration Growth Substantial agreement 1 Both agree that Actualization is ‘growing forward,’ while Restoration is ‘growing backward.’ 95%
D7 Actualization & Restoration Growth Making explicit 2 ADAPT distinguishes explicitly between the Medical Model and the Wellness Model. 95%
D7a Actualization Growth Restatement of concept 5 ADAPT restates the Transition Cycle as the Actualization Cycle – to highlight phases critical to the growth process. 90%
D7a Actualization Growth Differentiation 6 ADAPT differentiates between two modes of implementing Actualization – Guidance and Orchestration. 90%
D7a Actualization Growth Added conception 11 ADAPT identifies parenting/ Child Rearing as the original application of the Actualization Cycle. 90%
D7b Restoration Growth Restatement of concept 5 ADAPT restates the Transition Cycle as the Restoration Cycle – to highlight phases critical to the treatment process. 90%
D8 Coordination Growth Substantial agreement 1 Both agree that the Dimensions must be integrated and coordinated for effective growth to take place 95%
PR PROCESSES[51]     NUMBER OF INSTANCES: 18  
PR Processes: Actualization Expanded array of Processes 7 ADAPT posits 33 Processes of growth divided among seven Themes. For Actualization Growth, Wilber names about 12 Processes among his 17 categories. (for all Actualization Processes below, see Appendix B1) 90%
PR Processes: Restoration Expanded array of Processes 7 ADAPT posits 33 Processes of growth divided among seven Themes. For Restoration Growth, Wilber concentrates on four Processes (see PR 6-7 below) from two of ADAPT’s Themes. (for all Restoration Processes below, see Appendix B3) 90%
PR Processes Methodology/ Derivation 8 Wilber derives his Processes primarily from the psychological and spiritual literature and prevailing therapeutic practice. ADAPT derives its Processes primarily from their original source, Parenting/ Child Rearing. 90%
PR1/ 1-4 Processes: Foundational Added Processes 11 ADAPT adds numerous Processes and Modalities. In ILP, Natural Nutrition (#1) is represented only in diet programs listed under the Body Module. Natural Medicine (#2) is not represented. Certain aspects of Nurturing & Bonding (#3) are covered under the Sex, Shadow, Emotions, and Relationships Modules. Family Dynamics (#4) receives some coverage under the Shadow and Relationships (Integral Parenting) Modules. 90%
PR2/ 5-8 Processes: Physical World Added Processes 11 ADAPT adds numerous Processes and Modalities. In ILP, Sensory Awareness (#5) and Physical Activity (#6) are somewhat represented in the Body and Sex Modules. Some aspects of Life Experience (#7) are covered under the Work module. Natural Environment (#8) not represented. 90%
PR3/ 9-14 Processes: Socio-Cultural Added Processes 11 ADAPT adds numerous Processes and Modalities. In ILP, Skills, Habits, Responsibility, Enterprise, and Service (#s 9-13) are somewhat represented under the Work, Relationships, and Ethics Modules. Acculturation (#14) receives some representation through practices from diverse cultures in all Modules. 90%
PR4/ 15-20 Processes: Formal Investigation Making explicit 2 ADAPT makes explicit what is implicit in all Wilber’s work – that well-conceived thought (esp. an adequate conceptual model) is essential for effective growth. In ILP, Cognitive Processes (#s 15-20) are well-represented under the Mind and Ethics Modules, and in the systematic logic and structure underlying all the Modules. 90%
PR5/ 21-26 Processes: Self-Expression Added Processes 11 ADAPT adds numerous Processes and Modalities. In ILP, there is some representation for all Self-Expression Processes (#s 21-26) under the Emotions (Creative Expression & Art) and Shadow (Art & Music Therapy) Modules. Archetype & Myth (#26) receive some coverage under the Shadow (Dreamwork) and Spirit Modules. 90%
PR6/ 27-31 Processes: Conscious Development Added Processes 11 ADAPT adds numerous Processes and Modalities. In ILP, there is limited representation for Body Therapies (#27) under Body and Sex Modules. Introspection and Psychotherapies (#28-29) well-covered under the Shadow, Emotions, Relationships, and Sex Modules. Psycho-Biologic Techniques (#30) not represented. Spiritual Practices (#31) well-covered under the Spirit, Body, and Sex Modules. 90%
PR6/27 Processes: Body Therapies Broadened applicability 7 In Wilber’s Archeological Model of the Realms, Body Therapies are applicable only during the early Stages of development, or for people revisiting those Stages in therapy. In ADAPT’s Multi-Functional Model, bodywork is applicable to the entire span of the developmental sequence – both for healthy people and those with ‘problems.’ 80%
PR6/29 Processes: Psychotherapies Substantial agreement 1 Both agree that therapy is often the process of revisiting past moments when malfunctions in the Transition Cycle occurred. 90%
PR6/29 Processes: Psychotherapies Shift in emphasis 9 At each Stage, ADAPT emphasizes Restoration growth techniques for relatively normal people, not those with clinical pathologies. 95%
PR6/30 Processes: Psycho-biologic techniques Added Process 11 ADAPT introduces a non-psychologic mode of resolving Restoration Impediments. 85%
PR6/31 Processes: Spiritual Practices Agreement 1 Both agree that diligent and consistent Spiritual Practice is essential for growth. 95%
PR7/ 32-33 Processes: Conscious Development Expanded conception 7 ADAPT expands and extends the definition of Integral. The ILP program as a whole is an excellent Holistic Experience (#32). By our definition, ILP is not truly Integral (#33) until woven together at a level deeper than conceptual by various modes of Orchestration. 90%
PR7/ 32-33 Comprehensive Processes Substantial agreement 1 Both agree in distinguishing between a truly Integral program, and programs that are merely collections of growth experiences. 95%
PR7/33 Processes: Integral Programs Substantial agreement 1 Both agree that the highest form of Growth Program is Integral – combining all Dimensions, Processes, Participants, and Modes of Together-ness. 95%
PR7/33 Processes: Integral Programs Broadened scope 7 If ADAPT covers (as we believe) a broader, more nuanced range of Parameters, an Integral ADAPT program may offer a more diverse array of strategies and a more subtle interweaving of those approaches. 90%
P PARTICIPANTS     NUMBER OF INSTANCES: 23  
P Participants Collection and consolidation of concepts 3 ADAPT collects and consolidates into Participants (varieties of ‘self’) all the entities described by Wilber that partake in the growth process (and adds P6).[52] 90%
P1 Experienced/Observed Self Substantial agreement 1 Both agree that the Experienced/Observed Self is the central figure in our life journey. ADAPT renames Wilber’s original terms, ‘proximate’ and ‘distal,’ to make them more descriptive of their functions in the growth process. 90%
P1 Experienced/Observed Self Substantial agreement 1 Both agree that growth occurs primarily through the dialectical interplay between the Experienced and Observed Self – by the mechanism of the Transition Cycle (D1/2a). 90%
P2 Individual/Collective Self Agreement 1 Both agree that we can participate in the growth process both individually and collectively. 95%
P2a Collective Self Expanded concept 7 ADAPT expands the Collective Self from Culture alone[53] to include all groups from couples, the families, to work-groups, to teams, to communities, to cultures. (see D1b) 90%
P2b Cultural Self Substantial agreement 1 Both agree that there is a Cultural identity that goes through Stages of growth very similar to Individuals. 80%
P3 Personae & Types Differentiation 6 ADAPT differentiates between Types (simple categorizations of personalities) and Personae (identities constructed to engage in the drama of life). 80%
P3 Personae & Types Substantial agreement 1 Both agree that Personae and Types are true examples of horizontal equivalence. That is, one does not generally grow from one Type to the next.[54] 95%
P3 Personae & Types Enlarged role and increased emphasis 4 ADAPT assigns Personae & Types a more significant role in the growth process.[55] ADAPT emphasizes that each may undergo their own versions of Stage-like development. 80%
P3a Gender Types Substantial agreement 1 Both agree that the genders go through comparable Stages of growth, but in the two ‘different voices.’ 90%
P3a Gender Types Substantial agreement 1 Both agree that Translation primarily occurs in men through Agency, in women through Communion. 90%
P3a Gender Types Substantial agreement 1 Both agree that Transformation primarily occurs in men through Eros, in women through Agape. 90%
P3b Birth Order Types Added concept 11 ADAPT adds Birth-Order as an important class of Types. 80%
P3c Enneagram Roles Increased validity and status 10 ADAPT views as credible the evidence that Enneagram Roles represent distinct and fundamental Personae – not just arbitrary personality categories. 80%
P3c Enneagram Roles Differentiation 6 ADAPT distinguishes between Enneagram Roles that are Dominant and others that are Contributing. 90%
P3d Inter-Passage Growth Substantial agreement 1 Both agree that growth over a lifetime often proceeds from internal to external to internal. 90%
P3d Inter-Passage Growth Expanded conception 7 ADAPT expands Wilber’s ‘U-shaped’ growth pattern[56] into a more detailed conception of Inter-Passage growth -- encompassing all four Realms. 90%
P3d Inter-Passage Growth Substantial agreement 1 Both agree that Inter-Passage growth is not the ‘return to innocence’ of the Romantic Fallacy. 90%
P4 Functional Self Collection and consolidation of versions 3 ADAPT collects and consolidates the many versions of Wilber’s ‘functional invariants’ into a single list of the ten most plausible candidates[57] – and then renames the concept as Functional Self to emphasize its role as a Participant in the growth process. 85%
P4 Functional Self Substantial agreement 1 Both agree that the Functional Self does not undergo Stage-like development – but may in some cases be a Stage with which we identify. 85%
P5 Impediment Self Broadened category 7 ADAPT creates a broader category of pathological entities, the Impediment Self, which includes the Subpersonalities but is not limited to them. (see Impediments section) 90%
P6 Generational Self Added Participant 11 ADAPT adds to Participants the Generational Self -- a type of Collective Self that identifies with a particular Generation in the Generation Cycle. (See D1/2d.) 60%
P7 Witness Agreement 1 Both agree that the Witness is the all-pervasive Seer behind all consciousness – the Transcendent Self, the True Self, our Essence. 90%
T TOGETHER-NESS     NUMBER OF INSTANCES: 18  
T Together-ness Substantial agreement 1 Both agree on the key importance of integrating all the various strands of the growth process – the Dimensions, the Participants, the Processes, and the Modes of Together-ness themselves. 95%
T Together-ness Differentiation 6 ADAPT differentiates Wilber’s ‘integration’ into Guidance and Orchestration – to indicate distinct functions of Together-ness. 90%
T Together-ness Substantial agreement 1 Both agree on the importance of a counselor, Coordinator, Orchestrator, or Guide for implementing and facilitating the growth process. 95%
T Together-ness Broadened emphasis 7 ADAPT increases the emphasis on the experiential aspect of Orchestration, as well as the cognitive.[58] 95%
T Together-ness Added and differentiated categorization 6 ADAPT differentiates between three types of Guidance & Orchestration – Collective, Individual, and Internal. 90%
T1 Together-ness: Parent/s Elevation in importance 10 ADAPT emphasizes the key role of Parenting in the growth process – both Parenting as the central Process of child-raising, and Parenting as the primary prototype for adult growth Processes. Wilber makes little mention of Parenting – except implicitly as a source of certain pathologies. 95%
T2 Together-ness: Society & Culture Substantial agreement 1 Both agree that the society and culture provides a broad introduction to a particular worldview. 95%
T3 Together-ness: Holistic Growth Situations Added Mode of Together-ness 11 ADAPT adds Holistic Growth Situations as an important contributor to Together-ness. 95%
T4 Together-ness: Growth Center Broadened emphasis 4 In Integral Spirituality especially, Wilber extols the offerings of his new Growth Center, Integral Institute.[59] ADAPT emphasizes the unique features and benefits of many established Growth Centers. 90%
T5 Together-ness: Authorities Rendering explicit 2 ADAPT agrees with Wilber’s strong implied emphasis on the guidance of Authorities. Wilber’s entire body of work is evidence of the Guidance he has received from Authorities. Ken Wilber himself is a major Authority ADAPT advocates as a guide. 95%
T6 Together-ness: Partner/ Spouse Substantial agreement 1 Wilber’s Grace and Grit is an eloquent testament to the crucial importance of sharing important growth Transitions with a partner. 90%
T7 Together-ness: Therapist Shift in emphasis 9 ADAPT often favors non-traditional, humanistic growth professionals who combine intuitive, experiential, body-aware therapies with traditional verbal exploration. AQAL Journal articles often appear to favor traditional clinical psychology and psychiatry, broadened to include the AQAL Parameters. 90%
T8 Together-ness: Spiritual Master Substantial agreement 1 Both agree that a trustworthy Spiritual guide, with no pretensions to infallibility or godhood, is essential for spiritual growth. 90%
T9 Together-ness: Other Growth Professionals Substantial agreement 1 Wilber’s attention to Alex Grey in art and Stuart Davis in music (among others) indicates the important role in the growth process Wilber gives to ‘other growth professionals.’ 90%
T10 Together-ness: Integral Life Guide Substantial agreement 1 Both agree that the highest form of external Guidance is Integral – combining all Dimensions, Processes, Participants, and Modes of Together-ness. 95%
T10 Together-ness: Integral Life Guide Broader emphasis 4 If (as we believe) ADAPT offers a broader and more nuanced set of growth Parameters, then an ADAPT-based Guide can provide a comparably-broader therapy. 90%
T11 Together-ness: Internal Navigator Increased emphasis 4 ADAPT places greater emphasis on the internalization of various modes of Orchestration -- to free one from dependence on any outside Guidance. 95%
T12 Together-ness: Witness Agreement 1 Both agree that the Witness is our ultimate source of internal Orchestration. 80%
I IMPEDIMENTS[60]     NUMBER OF INSTANCES: 17  
I Impediments Substantial agreement 1 Both agree that Impediments can cause the growth process to be diverted, distorted, neglected, split off, repressed, denied, ignored, avoided, etc. 95%
I Impediments: Actualization/ Restoration Differentiation 6 Corresponding to the two modes of growth, ADAPT identifies two types of Impediment – Limitations and Impasses. 90%
I Impediments: Actualization/ Restoration Differentiation 6 Corresponding to the two types of Impediment, ADAPT identifies two types of Resolution – Actualization and Restoration. 90%
I Impediments: Actualization/ Restoration Rendering explicit 2 Corresponding to the two Modes of Resolution, ADAPT makes explicit the two types of professional assistance – Counseling and Therapy. 95%
I Impediments: Actualization Expanded concept 7 ADAPT observes that there are corresponding Actualization Impediments for virtually every ADAPT Feature. 95%
IA Impediments: Actualization Added concept 11 ADAPT identifies the source of Actualization Impediments as disruptions in the Actualization Cycle. 90%
IA Impediments: Actualization Added concept 11 ADAPT identifies the condition of Blighting -- for Limitations left too long without attention. 85%
IR Impediments: Restoration Restatement of concept 5 ADAPT restates Wilber’s concept of ‘pathology’ as an Impasse in the Actualization Cycle. 85%
IR Impediments: Restoration Substantial agreement 1 Both agree that Impasses can result from pernicious Sub-Personalities that can disrupt growth. 90%
IR Impediments: Restoration Restatement of process 5 ADAPT restates Wilber’s therapeutic ‘uncovering’ process as the four-phase Restoration Cycle. 90%
I-D Dimensions Impediments Rendering explicit 2 ADAPT makes explicit that the first and most fundamental Impediment to growth is failure to acknowledge and embrace the Growth Continuum. 95%
IA-D2 Transition Impediments Substantial agreement 1 Both agree that Transitions bring forth some particularly difficult Impediments – because they are experienced as a form of death. 90%
IA-D1/2e Pre-/Trans- Fallacy Impediments Substantial agreement 1 Both agree that the Pre-/Trans- Fallacy is an especially pervasive and pernicious Impediment. (see D5d1) ADAPT renames Wilber’s concept as the Romantic/ Inverse Romantic Fallacy to make the concept more intuitive. 80%
IA-D3 States Impediments: Peak Experiences Substantial agreement 1 Both agree that seeking Peak Experiences without converting them to Permanent Traits is a serious Impediment. 90%
IR-D1/2a Transition Cycle Impediments Substantial agreement 1 Both agree that the major Restoration Impediment is a malfunction of the Transition Cycle. 90%
IR-D1/2a Transition Cycle Impediments Substantial agreement 1 Both agree that the Transition Cycle may malfunction at any of the four phases. 90%
IR-P1 Subpersonalities Agreement 1 Both agree that Subpersonalities are non-integrated scraps of buried identity – which must be converted from Experienced to Observed Self for unobstructed growth to take place. 90%

Table of Contents

Table A2:
ADAPT AND WILBER COMPARED
Organized by Divergence

This Table contains the same comparisons as Table A1, ADAPT and Wilber Compared. Here, the comparisons are categorized by the type of Divergence between the positions of ADAPT and Ken Wilber (cols. 3 and 4). Within each category, the entries a presented in order of our Confidence[61] in their validity (col. 6).

We observe 12 degrees of Divergence between the two models – ranging from total agreement with Wilber’s existing position to significantly differing conceptions. The numbers of instances of each are as follows:

1. Substantial agreement. 55 instances.

2. Rendering explicit. 12 instances.

3. Consolidation of concepts/versions. 2 instances.

4. Increased or broadened emphasis. 4 instances.

5. Restatement, reorganization, or simplification of concept. 6 instances.

6. Differentiation. 10 instances.

7. Expanded, extended, reinterpreted, or broadened conception, scope, role, array, or applicability. 21 instances.

8. Broadened or alternative methodology. 3 instances.

9. Shift in emphasis or conception. 4 instances.

10. Elevation of role, status, importance, or validity. 4 instances.

11. Added concept, Parameter, characteristic, proposed Feature. 17 instances.

12. Differing conception. 2 instances.

Note the high number of Parameters on which ADAPT and Wilber diverge – and the degree of that Divergence. Of the total 140 comparisons, our analysis indicates at least 73 comparisons where the two models have differing positions -- as against only 67 (categories 1 +2) in which they are in total or substantial agreement. These Divergences indicate areas in which the Wilber model may need re-examination, and perhaps revision.

This rearrangement is designed as a tool for constructing a revised model of human development. It allows the reader to readily see which Parameters ADAPT and Wilber are most in agreement. Presumably, those will be the easiest issues to resolve. Move progressively through the comparisons from least to greatest Divergence – asking yourself a set of questions at each entry: Does the comparison accurately characterize the two positions? Which position appears more valid? Is there a third position that is more plausible? From this, you will begin to derive your own model of human development.

Number Parameter Type of ADAPT modification Divergence number Nature of ADAPT modification Confidence in ADAPT position
  AGREEMENT   1 Number of Instances: 55  
D1 Stage Growth Substantial agreement 1 Both agree that Stages are periods of horizontal Translation and Assimilation – times when we are becoming better at activities we already know how to do. 95%
D1a Stages/Individual Agreement 1 Both agree that individual growth occurs by progression through a series of Stages. 95%
D2 Transition Growth Substantial agreement 1 Both agree that Transitions are periods of vertical Transformation and Discovery – times when we are becoming something we’ve never been before. 95%
D3c Peak Experiences Agreement 1 Both agree that Peak Experiences are temporary Altered States, which must be converted to Permanent States (Traits) to have a lasting effect on growth. (see D3d) 95%
D4c Realms: Body Passages (experienced) Substantial agreement 1 Both agree that the body can be viewed from two perspectives -- the internal, Upper-Left, Experienced Body, and the external, Upper-Right Observed Body.[62] 95%
D5 Arena Growth Substantial agreement 1 Both agree on Differential Growth -- that growth may take place at different rates in different Arenas, and that one may therefore be at different Stages in each. 95%
D6a Quadrants of Growth Agreement 1 Both agree that any growth experience may be viewed from four different perspectives, or Quadrants – inner/individual, outer/individual, inner/collective, and outer/ collective. 95%
D6a Quadrants of Growth Agreement 1 Both agree that a complete and Integral development program must approach growth from all four perspectives. 95%
D6c Ascending/Descending & Polarities Substantial agreement 1 Both agree that growth can be experienced as movement upward and outward, but also downward and inward. 95%
D7 Actualization & Restoration Growth Substantial agreement 1 Both agree that Actualization is ‘growing forward,’ while Restoration is ‘growing backward.’ 95%
D8 Coordination Growth Substantial agreement 1 Both agree that the Dimensions must be integrated and coordinated for effective growth to take place 95%
PR6/31 Processes: Spiritual Practices Agreement 1 Both agree that diligent and consistent Spiritual Practice is essential for growth. 95%
PR7/ 32-33 Comprehensive Processes Substantial agreement 1 Both agree in distinguishing between a truly Integral program, and programs that are merely collections of growth experiences. 95%
PR7/33 Processes: Integral Programs Substantial agreement 1 Both agree that the highest form of Growth Program is Integral – combining all Dimensions, Processes, Participants, and Modes of Together-ness. 95%
P2 Individual/Collective Self Agreement 1 Both agree that we can participate in the growth process both individually and collectively. 95%
P3 Personae & Types Substantial agreement 1 Both agree that Personae and Types are true examples of horizontal equivalence. That is, one does not generally grow from one Type to the next.[63] 95%
T Together-ness Substantial agreement 1 Both agree on the key importance of integrating all the various strands of the growth process – the Dimensions, the Participants, the Processes, and the Modes of Together-ness themselves. 95%
T Together-ness Substantial agreement 1 Both agree on the importance of a counselor, Coordinator, Orchestrator, or Guide for implementing and facilitating the growth process. 95%
T2 Together-ness: Society & Culture Substantial agreement 1 Both agree that the society and culture provides a broad introduction to a particular worldview. 95%
T10 Together-ness: Integral Life Guide Substantial agreement 1 Both agree that the highest form of external Guidance is Integral – combining all Dimensions, Processes, Participants, and Modes of Together-ness. 95%
I Impediments Substantial agreement 1 Both agree that Impediments can cause the growth process to be diverted, distorted, neglected, split off, repressed, denied, ignored, avoided, etc. 95%
D1/2b FDS: Clusters Substantial agreement 1 Both agree that the FDS can be condensed into 12 developmental groupings. Since Wilber’s term ‘fulcrum’ can be ambiguous, ADAPT renames the groupings as Clusters. 90%
D3 State Growth Substantial agreement 1 ADAPT agrees that there are four higher States of consciousness – Psychic, Subtle, Causal, and Non-dual. 90%
D3a Natural States Agreement 1 Both agree that Natural States are the four normal or basic States of consciousness – waking/gross, dreaming/subtle, deep sleep/causal, and nondual. 90%
D3b Altered States Agreement 1 Both agree that Altered States are non-normal, sometimes-induced States – such as meditative States, mystical experiences, Peak Experiences, drug-induced States, and near-death experiences. 90%
D4 Realms Substantial agreement 1 ADAPT agrees that consciousness can be divided into three ‘realms,’ ‘spheres,’ or ‘domains’ – equivalent to Wilber’s ‘sensibilia’/ ‘physio-biosphere’, ‘intelligibilia’/ ‘noosphere’, and ‘transcendentalia’/ ‘theosphere’. 90%
D5b Psyche Arenas Substantial agreement 1 All the Psyche Arenas listed by ADAPT, except D5b Leadership, are specific ‘Lines’ discussed by Wilber. 90%
D5b Psyche Arenas Substantial agreement 1 Wilber and ADAPT substantially agree as to the content of each Psyche Arena. 90%
D5d1 Spirit Arenas: Archetypes and myths Agreement 1 ADAPT agrees that Archetypes and Myths are the product of an archaic Stage of cultural development – and that much so-called ‘archetypal’ thinking may be infected by the Pre-/Trans- Fallacy. (see also IA-D1/2e) 90%
PR6/29 Processes: Psychotherapies Substantial agreement 1 Both agree that therapy is often the process of revisiting past moments when malfunctions in the Transition Cycle occurred. 90%
P1 Experienced/Observed Self Substantial agreement 1 Both agree that the Experienced/Observed Self is the central figure in our life journey. ADAPT renames Wilber’s original terms, ‘proximate’ and ‘distal,’ to make them more descriptive of their functions in the growth process. 90%
P1 Experienced/Observed Self Substantial agreement 1 Both agree that growth occurs primarily through the dialectical interplay between the Experienced and Observed Self – by the mechanism of the Transition Cycle (D1/2a). 90%
P3a Gender Types Substantial agreement 1 Both agree that the genders go through comparable Stages of growth, but in the two ‘different voices.’ 90%
P3a Gender Types Substantial agreement 1 Both agree that Translation primarily occurs in men through Agency, in women through Communion. 90%
P3a Gender Types Substantial agreement 1 Both agree that Transformation primarily occurs in men through Eros, in women through Agape. 90%
P3d Inter-Passage Growth Substantial agreement 1 Both agree that growth over a lifetime often proceeds from internal to external to internal. 90%
P3d Inter-Passage Growth Substantial agreement 1 Both agree that Inter-Passage growth is not the ‘return to innocence’ of the Romantic Fallacy. 90%
P7 Witness Agreement 1 Both agree that the Witness is the all-pervasive Seer behind all consciousness – the Transcendent Self, the True Self, our Essence. 90%
T6 Together-ness: Partner/ Spouse Substantial agreement 1 Wilber’s Grace and Grit is an eloquent testament to the crucial importance of sharing important growth Transitions with a partner. 90%
T8 Together-ness: Spiritual Master Substantial agreement 1 Both agree that a trustworthy Spiritual guide, with no pretensions to infallibility or godhood, is essential for spiritual growth. 90%
T9 Together-ness: Other Growth Professionals Substantial agreement 1 Wilber’s attention to Alex Grey in art and Stuart Davis in music (among others) indicates the important role in the growth process Wilber gives to ‘other growth professionals.’ 90%
IR Impediments: Restoration Substantial agreement 1 Both agree that Impasses can result from pernicious Sub-Personalities that can disrupt growth. 90%
IA-D2 Transition Impediments Substantial agreement 1 Both agree that Transitions bring forth some particularly difficult Impediments – because they are experienced as a form of death. 90%
IA-D3 States Impediments: Peak Experiences Substantial agreement 1 Both agree that seeking Peak Experiences without converting them to Permanent Traits is a serious Impediment. 90%
IR-D1/2a Transition Cycle Impediments Substantial agreement 1 Both agree that the major Restoration Impediment is a malfunction of the Transition Cycle. 90%
IR-D1/2a Transition Cycle Impediments Substantial agreement 1 Both agree that the Transition Cycle may malfunction at any of the four phases. 90%
IR-P1 Subpersonalities Agreement 1 Both agree that Subpersonalities are non-integrated scraps of buried identity – which must be converted from Experienced to Observed Self for unobstructed growth to take place. 90%
P4 Functional Self Substantial agreement 1 Both agree that the Functional Self does not undergo Stage-like development – but may in some cases be a Stage with which we identify. 85%
Aa ADAPT: Growth Continuum Substantial agreement 1 ADAPT agrees that the Growth Continuum is the manifestation of a great morphogenetic field of development, and that mankind’s greatest drive is to actualize that Continuum through one’s own personal growth. ADAPT names that field the Growth Continuum to emphasize its function in human development. 80%
D1/2e Dev Sequence/ Cultural Substantial agreement 1 Both agree that Cultures follow a Stage-related path of development similar to individuals, but spread over eons of time. (see P2) 80%
D1/2e Dev Sequence/ Cultural Substantial agreement 1 Both agree that Spiral Dynamics is a prime example of Culture Passages. 80%
D5d Spirit Arenas [under development] Substantial agreement 1 ADAPT agrees there may be several Spiritual Arenas in which such growth takes place. (see also D4d) 80%
P2b Cultural Self Substantial agreement 1 Both agree that there is a Cultural identity that goes through Stages of growth very similar to Individuals. 80%
T12 Together-ness: Witness Agreement 1 Both agree that the Witness is our ultimate source of internal Orchestration. 80%
IA-D1/2e Pre-/Trans- Fallacy Impediments Substantial agreement 1 Both agree that the Pre-/Trans- Fallacy is an especially pervasive and pernicious Impediment. (see D5d1) ADAPT renames Wilber’s concept as the Romantic/ Inverse Romantic Fallacy to make the concept more intuitive. 80%
  EXPLICIT   2 Number of Instances: 12  
D1/2 Developmental Sequence Rendering explicit 2 ADAPT makes explicit what is implicit in Wilber’s work (especially in his Tables): Growth occurs through a series of alternating Stages and Transitions. (see D1) 95%
D4 Realms: Passages Making explicit 2 ADAPT names and makes explicit that Passages are the process of moving through the Stages of the Growth Continuum in each Realm. 95%
D4b Realms: Psyche Passages Explicit categorization 2 ADAPT makes explicit what is implicit in Wilber’s Tables – that the psychological ‘Lines’ may be conveniently collected into a distinct Realm we call Psyche Passages. 95%
D7 Actualization & Restoration Growth Rendering explicit 2 ADAPT renders explicit that growth is Actualization of one’s Human Potential. 95%
D7 Actualization & Restoration Growth Making explicit 2 ADAPT distinguishes explicitly between the Medical Model and the Wellness Model. 95%
T5 Together-ness: Authorities Rendering explicit 2 ADAPT agrees with Wilber’s strong implied emphasis on the guidance of Authorities. Wilber’s entire body of work is evidence of the Guidance he has received from Authorities. Ken Wilber himself is a major Authority ADAPT advocates as a guide. 95%
I Impediments: Actualization/ Restoration Rendering explicit 2 Corresponding to the two Modes of Resolution, ADAPT makes explicit the two types of professional assistance – Counseling and Therapy. 95%
I-D Dimensions Impediments Rendering explicit 2 ADAPT makes explicit that the first and most fundamental Impediment to growth is failure to acknowledge and embrace the Growth Continuum. 95%
D7 Actualization & Restoration Growth Rendering explicit 2 ADAPT makes explicit that there are two distinct approaches to the growth process – Actualization for basically healthy people, and Restoration for those with ‘problems.’[64] (see Impediments section) 90%
PR4/ 15-20 Processes: Formal Investigation Making explicit 2 ADAPT makes explicit what is implicit in all Wilber’s work – that well-conceived thought (esp. an adequate conceptual model) is essential for effective growth. In ILP, Cognitive Processes (#s 15-20) are well-represented under the Mind and Ethics Modules, and in the systematic logic and structure underlying all the Modules. 90%
D1/2b Fundamental Developmental Sequence Rendering explicit 2 ADAPT renders explicit a growth sequence that is implicit in Wilber’s Tables (especially the vertical coordinate displayed on each page).[65] 85%
D4d Realms: Spirit Passages [under development] Making explicit 2 A substantial proportion of Wilber’s Tables outline ‘spiritual’ development sequences. ADAPT makes explicit that these may be collected into a distinct Realm. (but see D3) 80%
  CONSOLIDATION   3 Number of Instances: 2  
P Participants Collection and consolidation of concepts 3 ADAPT collects and consolidates into Participants (varieties of ‘self’) all the entities described by Wilber that partake in the growth process (and adds P6).[66] 90%
P4 Functional Self Collection and consolidation of versions 3 ADAPT collects and consolidates the many versions of Wilber’s ‘functional invariants’ into a single list of the ten most plausible candidates[67] – and then renames the concept as Functional Self to emphasize its role as a Participant in the growth process. 85%
  EMPHASIS   4 Number of Instances: 4  
T11 Together-ness: Internal Navigator Increased emphasis 4 ADAPT places greater emphasis on the internalization of various modes of Orchestration -- to free one from dependence on any outside Guidance. 95%
T4 Together-ness: Growth Center Broadened emphasis 4 In Integral Spirituality especially, Wilber extols the offerings of his new Growth Center, Integral Institute.[68] ADAPT emphasizes the unique features and benefits of many established Growth Centers. 90%
T10 Together-ness: Integral Life Guide Broader emphasis 4 If (as we believe) ADAPT offers a broader and more nuanced set of growth Parameters, then an ADAPT-based Guide can provide a comparably-broader therapy. 90%
P3 Personae & Types Enlarged role and increased emphasis 4 ADAPT assigns Personae & Types a more significant role in the growth process.[69] ADAPT emphasizes that each may undergo their own versions of Stage-like development. 80%
  RESTATEMENT   5 Number of Instances: 6  
D1/2a Dev Sequence: Transition Cycle Restatement of concept 5 For clarity, ADAPT restates Wilber’s three-phase Fulcrum[70] as a four-phase Transition Cycle. Since Wilber’s term ‘fulcrum’ can be ambiguous (both a ‘milestone’ and a pivot point), ADAPT renames the process the Transition Cycle. 90%
D7a Actualization Growth Restatement of concept 5 ADAPT restates the Transition Cycle as the Actualization Cycle – to highlight phases critical to the growth process. 90%
D7b Restoration Growth Restatement of concept 5 ADAPT restates the Transition Cycle as the Restoration Cycle – to highlight phases critical to the treatment process. 90%
IR Impediments: Restoration Restatement of process 5 ADAPT restates Wilber’s therapeutic ‘uncovering’ process as the four-phase Restoration Cycle. 90%
IR Impediments: Restoration Restatement of concept 5 ADAPT restates Wilber’s concept of ‘pathology’ as an Impasse in the Actualization Cycle. 85%
D4 Realms Restatement and Simplification 5 ADAPT restates and simplifies the three Realms into Body, Psyche, and Spirit.[71] 80%
  DIFFERENTIATION   6 Number of Instances: 10  
A ADAPT Differentiation 6 ADAPT differentiates the Features of the growth model into four major Domains – Dimensions, Participants, Processes, and Orchestrators (‘To-getherness’). (In our terminology, Wilber’s AQAL model consists of four Dimensions and one Participant.) 95%
D1 Stage Growth Differentiation 6 ADAPT differentiates Wilber’s Stages into two phases of the growth sequence – Stages and Transitions. (see D2 and D1/2) 95%
D5 Arenas Differentiation 6 ADAPT differentiates Wilber’s ‘Lines’ into the nested categories of Arenas, Lines, Studies, and Issues. 90%
D7a Actualization Growth Differentiation 6 ADAPT differentiates between two modes of implementing Actualization – Guidance and Orchestration. 90%
P3c Enneagram Roles Differentiation 6 ADAPT distinguishes between Enneagram Roles that are Dominant and others that are Contributing. 90%
T Together-ness Differentiation 6 ADAPT differentiates Wilber’s ‘integration’ into Guidance and Orchestration – to indicate distinct functions of Together-ness. 90%
T Together-ness Added and differentiated categorization 6 ADAPT differentiates between three types of Guidance & Orchestration – Collective, Individual, and Internal. 90%
I Impediments: Actualization/ Restoration Differentiation 6 Corresponding to the two modes of growth, ADAPT identifies two types of Impediment – Limitations and Impasses. 90%
I Impediments: Actualization/ Restoration Differentiation 6 Corresponding to the two types of Impediment, ADAPT identifies two types of Resolution – Actualization and Restoration. 90%
P3 Personae & Types Differentiation 6 ADAPT differentiates between Types (simple categorizations of personalities) and Personae (identities constructed to engage in the drama of life). 80%
  EXPANDED   7 Number of Instances: 21  
A ADAPT Reorganization, revision, & expansion of conception 7 ADAPT substantially revises and expands the number and character of Features that define human growth. 95%
T Together-ness Broadened emphasis 7 ADAPT increases the emphasis on the experiential aspect of Orchestration, as well as the cognitive.[72] 95%
I Impediments: Actualization Expanded concept 7 ADAPT observes that there are corresponding Actualization Impediments for virtually every ADAPT Feature. 95%
A ADAPT Expanded structure 7 ADAPT provides a substantially expanded structure for organizing and categorizing the Parameters of the Growth Dynamic. 90%
D Dimensions Expanded conception 7 ADAPT expands the total Dimensions to eight – and adds several sub-Dimensions. (see D-sections below) (In our terminology, AQAL contains four of these Dimensions.) 90%
D1/2b Fundamental Developmental Sequence Extension of concept 7 For completeness, ADAPT adds to the FDS a step before birth (Heritage) and after death (Legacy). 90%
D1/2e Dev Sequence/ Collective Expanded concept 7 ADAPT expands Collective growth beyond just Cultural -- to include all groups from couples, to families, to workgroups, to teams, to communities, to cultures. (see P2) 90%
D4 Realm Growth Expanded application 7 ADAPT emphasizes the potential for growth in all four Realms. Wilber focuses almost exclusively on two of these – what we call Psyche and Spirit.[73] 90%
D6b Vectors of Growth Extended concept 7 In addition to Wilber’s four perspectives of the Quadrants, ADAPT proposes four paths of growth – inner and outer Realms, combined with Individual and Collective Participants. 90%
PR Processes: Actualization Expanded array of Processes 7 ADAPT posits 33 Processes of growth divided among seven Themes. For Actualization Growth, Wilber names about 12 Processes among his 17 categories. (for all Actualization Processes below, see Appendix B1) 90%
PR Processes: Restoration Expanded array of Processes 7 ADAPT posits 33 Processes of growth divided among seven Themes. For Restoration Growth, Wilber concentrates on four Processes (see PR 6-7 below) from two of ADAPT’s Themes. (for all Restoration Processes below, see Appendix B3) 90%
PR7/ 32-33 Processes: Conscious Development Expanded conception 7 ADAPT expands and extends the definition of Integral. The ILP program as a whole is an excellent Holistic Experience (#32). By our definition, ILP is not truly Integral (#33) until woven together at a level deeper than conceptual by various modes of Orchestration. 90%
PR7/33 Processes: Integral Programs Broadened scope 7 If ADAPT covers (as we believe) a broader, more nuanced range of Parameters, an Integral ADAPT program may offer a more diverse array of strategies and a more subtle interweaving of those approaches. 90%
P2a Collective Self Expanded concept 7 ADAPT expands the Collective Self from Culture alone[74] to include all groups from couples, the families, to work-groups, to teams, to communities, to cultures. (see D1b) 90%
P3d Inter-Passage Growth Expanded conception 7 ADAPT expands Wilber’s ‘U-shaped’ growth pattern[75] into a more detailed conception of Inter-Passage growth -- encompassing all four Realms. 90%
P5 Impediment Self Broadened category 7 ADAPT creates a broader category of pathological entities, the Impediment Self, which includes the Subpersonalities but is not limited to them. (see Impediments section) 90%
D6e Evolution/Involution Substantial agreement 7 Both agree that growth cycles through twin Polarities -- an ascending arc of Evolution, then a descending arc of Involution.[76] 80%
D6e Evolution/Involution Extended concept 7 While Wilber focuses on the spiritual aspect of Evolution/ Involution, ADAPT applies this concept to all four Realms. 80%
PR6/27 Processes: Body Therapies Broadened applicability 7 In Wilber’s Archeological Model of the Realms, Body Therapies are applicable only during the early Stages of development, or for people revisiting those Stages in therapy. In ADAPT’s Multi-Functional Model, bodywork is applicable to the entire span of the developmental sequence – both for healthy people and those with ‘problems.’ 80%
D1/2c The Chakras Expanded conception 7 ADAPT re-conceives Wilber’s ‘fulcrums’ as Chakras -- to encompass not just the Western concept of a consolidated FDS, but the Eastern concept of energy phenomena manifested simultaneously in the three internal Realms of Body, Psyche, and Spirit. (See also D3b) 70%
D3 State Growth [under development] Expansion of concept 7 In addition to Wilber’s five possible conceptions of Spirit,[77] ADAPT suggests two others – that Spirit may be a distinct Realm (D4), or a distinct Dimension (D3). 70%
  METHODOLOGY   8 Number of Instances: 3  
Ac ADAPT: Methodology Broadened methodology 8 Wilber’s positions appear largely derived from the psychological literature, the perennial traditions, and descriptions of therapeutic practice. ADAPT adds to these, further derivations from professional and personal experience -- including counseling clients, teaching school, studying imaginative literature, extensive personal growth experience, and raising children.[78] 90%
PR Processes Methodology/ Derivation 8 Wilber derives his Processes primarily from the psychological and spiritual literature and prevailing therapeutic practice. ADAPT derives its Processes primarily from their original source, Parenting/ Child Rearing. 90%
Ac ADAPT: Methodology Methodology – extended metaphor 8 ADAPT adds the journey (esp. Odysseus) as a consistent, overarching metaphorical parallel to the growth process – both to illustrate important points and as an analytical source for further insights. 80%
  SHIFT   9 Number of Instances: 4  
PR6/29 Processes: Psychotherapies Shift in emphasis 9 At each Stage, ADAPT emphasizes Restoration growth techniques for relatively normal people, not those with clinical pathologies. 95%
D6b Vectors of Growth Shift in emphasis 9 ADAPT emphasizes all four Realms of growth in any truly Integral growth program. 90%
T7 Together-ness: Therapist Shift in emphasis 9 ADAPT often favors non-traditional, humanistic growth professionals who combine intuitive, experiential, body-aware therapies with traditional verbal exploration. AQAL Journal articles often appear to favor traditional clinical psychology and psychiatry, broadened to include the AQAL Parameters. 90%
D6d Cyclic flow Shift in conception and emphasis 9 ADAPT conceives of growth as a tree-like oscillation or cyclic movement between Polarities -- not as a ladder-like upward spiral or trajectory. 80%
  ELEVATION   10 Number of Instances: 4  
D4a Realms: Life Passages Elevation of role or status 10 ADAPT elevates Life Passages to the status of true growth – i.e. an alternating sequence of Translations and Transformations – rather than Translation alone.[79] 95%
T1 Together-ness: Parent/s Elevation in importance 10 ADAPT emphasizes the key role of Parenting in the growth process – both Parenting as the central Process of child-raising, and Parenting as the primary prototype for adult growth Processes. Wilber makes little mention of Parenting – except implicitly as a source of certain pathologies. 95%
D5d1 Spirit Arenas: Archetypes and myths [under development] Elevation of concept 10 In addition to the above, ADAPT views Archetypes and Myths as a subtle language that is potentially useful for describing, apprehending, accessing, and evoking many States of consciousness – including the higher States (cf. Process 5/26). 80%
P3c Enneagram Roles Increased validity and status 10 ADAPT views as credible the evidence that Enneagram Roles represent distinct and fundamental Personae – not just arbitrary personality categories. 80%
  ADDED   11 Number of Instances: 17  
D4a Realms: Life Passages Added Realm 11 ADAPT adds Life Passages as the external manifestation of Wilber’s ‘gross’ realm. 95%
D5a Life Arenas Added set of Arenas 11 Corresponding to the added Realm of Life Passages, ADAPT outlines a set of Life Arenas – using categories familiar to the counseling and coaching professions. 95%
T3 Together-ness: Holistic Growth Situations Added Mode of Together-ness 11 ADAPT adds Holistic Growth Situations as an important contributor to Together-ness. 95%
D7a Actualization Growth Added conception 11 ADAPT identifies parenting/ Child Rearing as the original application of the Actualization Cycle. 90%
PR1/ 1-4 Processes: Foundational Added Processes 11 ADAPT adds numerous Processes and Modalities. In ILP, Natural Nutrition (#1) is represented only in diet programs listed under the Body Module. Natural Medicine (#2) is not represented. Certain aspects of Nurturing & Bonding (#3) are covered under the Sex, Shadow, Emotions, and Relationships Modules. Family Dynamics (#4) receives some coverage under the Shadow and Relationships (Integral Parenting) Modules. 90%
PR2/ 5-8 Processes: Physical World Added Processes 11 ADAPT adds numerous Processes and Modalities. In ILP, Sensory Awareness (#5) and Physical Activity (#6) are somewhat represented in the Body and Sex Modules. Some aspects of Life Experience (#7) are covered under the Work module. Natural Environment (#8) not represented. 90%
PR3/ 9-14 Processes: Socio-Cultural Added Processes 11 ADAPT adds numerous Processes and Modalities. In ILP, Skills, Habits, Responsibility, Enterprise, and Service (#s 9-13) are somewhat represented under the Work, Relationships, and Ethics Modules. Acculturation (#14) receives some representation through practices from diverse cultures in all Modules. 90%
PR5/ 21-26 Processes: Self-Expression Added Processes 11 ADAPT adds numerous Processes and Modalities. In ILP, there is some representation for all Self-Expression Processes (#s 21-26) under the Emotions (Creative Expression & Art) and Shadow (Art & Music Therapy) Modules. Archetype & Myth (#26) receive some coverage under the Shadow (Dreamwork) and Spirit Modules. 90%
PR6/ 27-31 Processes: Conscious Development Added Processes 11 ADAPT adds numerous Processes and Modalities. In ILP, there is limited representation for Body Therapies (#27) under Body and Sex Modules. Introspection and Psychotherapies (#28-29) well-covered under the Shadow, Emotions, Relationships, and Sex Modules. Psycho-Biologic Techniques (#30) not represented. Spiritual Practices (#31) well-covered under the Spirit, Body, and Sex Modules. 90%
IA Impediments: Actualization Added concept 11 ADAPT identifies the source of Actualization Impediments as disruptions in the Actualization Cycle. 90%
PR6/30 Processes: Psycho-biologic techniques Added Process 11 ADAPT introduces a non-psychologic mode of resolving Restoration Impediments. 85%
IA Impediments: Actualization Added concept 11 ADAPT identifies the condition of Blighting -- for Limitations left too long without attention. 85%
P3b Birth Order Types Added concept 11 ADAPT adds Birth-Order as an important class of Types. 80%
D4c Realms: Body Passages (experienced) [under development] Added Realm 11 In consonance with the Eastern conception of the Chakras (D1/2c), ADAPT proposes to add Body Passages as a separate Realm of growth. (See also PR 6/27) 75%
D5c Body Arenas (experienced) [under development] Added set of Arenas 11 Corresponding to the proposed Realm of Body Passages, ADAPT proposes a set of Body Arenas – to be drawn from the fields of alternative medicine, body-oriented therapies, and body-oriented spiritual practices. 75%
D1/2d Generation Cycle Added Dimension 11 ADAPT proposes an additional Dimension, the Generation Cycle -- as the cultural equivalent of the Transition Cycle for individuals. 60%
P6 Generational Self Added Participant 11 ADAPT adds to Participants the Generational Self -- a type of Collective Self that identifies with a particular Generation in the Generation Cycle. (See D1/2d.) 60%
  DIFFERING   12 Number of Instances: 2  
D3 State Growth Differing conception 12 ADAPT views Spirit, not only as an Upper-Left internal experience, but as an Upper-Right objective reality. 80%
D4 Realms: Architecture of Self Differing conception 12 ADAPT’s conception of the Architecture of Self differs significantly from that of Wilber. Wilber employs an ‘archeological’ Stacked Model,[80] while ADAPT uses a ‘retrofitted’ Multi-Functionality Model. (see D1/2c) 70%

Table of Contents

Table A3:
ADAPT AND WILBER COMPARED
Organized by Degree of Confidence

This Table contains the same comparisons as Table A1, ADAPT and Wilber Compared. Here, the comparisons are categorized by the authors’ Confidence in the validity of the ADAPT position[81] (col. 6). Within each category, the entries are presented in order of the type of Divergence between the positions of ADAPT and Ken Wilber (cols. 3 and 4). The number of instances of each level of Confidence are as follows:

1. 95%. 41 instances.

2. 90%. 66 instances.

3. 85%. 6 instances.

4. 80%. 20 instances.

5. 75%. 2 instances.

6. 70%. 3 instances.

7. 60%. 2 instances.

Note that for the large majority of comparisons, the authors have a very high Confidence in the ADAPT position. Of the total 140 comparisons, the authors have a Confidence level of 90% or better on 107 of ADAPT’s positions. Of those, 57 are positions on which ADAPT and Wilber agree either explicitly or implicitly -- while 50 are positions where ADAPT and Wilber diverge. Therefore, there are (in the authors’ opinion) at least 50 positions where Wilber’s position may be most in need of revision.

This rearrangement is designed as a tool for constructing a revised model of human development. It allows the reader to readily see which Parameters of ADAPT have the authors’ greatest Confidence. Presumably, those will be the issues where ADAPT’s position is most likely to prevail. Move progressively through the comparisons from greatest to least degree of Confidence – asking yourself a set of questions at each entry: Does the comparison accurately characterize the two positions? Which position appears more valid? Is there a third position that is more plausible? From this, you will begin to derive your own model of human development.

Number Parameter Type of ADAPT modification Divergence number Nature of ADAPT modification Confidence in ADAPT position
  95% Confidence     Number of Instances: 41 95%
D1 Stage Growth Substantial agreement 1 Both agree that Stages are periods of horizontal Translation and Assimilation – times when we are becoming better at activities we already know how to do. 95%
D1a Stages/Individual Agreement 1 Both agree that individual growth occurs by progression through a series of Stages. 95%
D2 Transition Growth Substantial agreement 1 Both agree that Transitions are periods of vertical Transformation and Discovery – times when we are becoming something we’ve never been before. 95%
D3c Peak Experiences Agreement 1 Both agree that Peak Experiences are temporary Altered States, which must be converted to Permanent States (Traits) to have a lasting effect on growth. (see D3d) 95%
D4c Realms: Body Passages (experienced) Substantial agreement 1 Both agree that the body can be viewed from two perspectives -- the internal, Upper-Left, Experienced Body, and the external, Upper-Right Observed Body.[82] 95%
D5 Arena Growth Substantial agreement 1 Both agree on Differential Growth -- that growth may take place at different rates in different Arenas, and that one may therefore be at different Stages in each. 95%
D6a Quadrants of Growth Agreement 1 Both agree that any growth experience may be viewed from four different perspectives, or Quadrants – inner/individual, outer/individual, inner/collective, and outer/ collective. 95%
D6a Quadrants of Growth Agreement 1 Both agree that a complete and Integral development program must approach growth from all four perspectives. 95%
D6c Ascending/Descending & Polarities Substantial agreement 1 Both agree that growth can be experienced as movement upward and outward, but also downward and inward. 95%
D7 Actualization & Restoration Growth Substantial agreement 1 Both agree that Actualization is ‘growing forward,’ while Restoration is ‘growing backward.’ 95%
D8 Coordination Growth Substantial agreement 1 Both agree that the Dimensions must be integrated and coordinated for effective growth to take place 95%
PR6/31 Processes: Spiritual Practices Agreement 1 Both agree that diligent and consistent Spiritual Practice is essential for growth. 95%
PR7/ 32-33 Comprehensive Processes Substantial agreement 1 Both agree in distinguishing between a truly Integral program, and programs that are merely collections of growth experiences. 95%
PR7/33 Processes: Integral Programs Substantial agreement 1 Both agree that the highest form of Growth Program is Integral – combining all Dimensions, Processes, Participants, and Modes of Together-ness. 95%
P2 Individual/Collective Self Agreement 1 Both agree that we can participate in the growth process both individually and collectively. 95%
P3 Personae & Types Substantial agreement 1 Both agree that Personae and Types are true examples of horizontal equivalence. That is, one does not generally grow from one Type to the next.[83] 95%
T Together-ness Substantial agreement 1 Both agree on the key importance of integrating all the various strands of the growth process – the Dimensions, the Participants, the Processes, and the Modes of Together-ness themselves. 95%
T Together-ness Substantial agreement 1 Both agree on the importance of a counselor, Coordinator, Orchestrator, or Guide for implementing and facilitating the growth process. 95%
T2 Together-ness: Society & Culture Substantial agreement 1 Both agree that the society and culture provides a broad introduction to a particular worldview. 95%
T10 Together-ness: Integral Life Guide Substantial agreement 1 Both agree that the highest form of external Guidance is Integral – combining all Dimensions, Processes, Participants, and Modes of Together-ness. 95%
I Impediments Substantial agreement 1 Both agree that Impediments can cause the growth process to be diverted, distorted, neglected, split off, repressed, denied, ignored, avoided, etc. 95%
D1/2 Developmental Sequence Rendering explicit 2 ADAPT makes explicit what is implicit in Wilber’s work (especially in his Tables): Growth occurs through a series of alternating Stages and Transitions. (see D1) 95%
D4 Realms: Passages Making explicit 2 ADAPT names and makes explicit that Passages are the process of moving through the Stages of the Growth Continuum in each Realm. 95%
D4b Realms: Psyche Passages Explicit categorization 2 ADAPT makes explicit what is implicit in Wilber’s Tables – that the psychological ‘Lines’ may be conveniently collected into a distinct Realm we call Psyche Passages. 95%
D7 Actualization & Restoration Growth Rendering explicit 2 ADAPT renders explicit that growth is Actualization of one’s Human Potential. 95%
D7 Actualization & Restoration Growth Making explicit 2 ADAPT distinguishes explicitly between the Medical Model and the Wellness Model. 95%
T5 Together-ness: Authorities Rendering explicit 2 ADAPT agrees with Wilber’s strong implied emphasis on the guidance of Authorities. Wilber’s entire body of work is evidence of the valuableGuidance he has received from Authorities. Ken Wilber himself is a major Authority ADAPT advocates as a guide. 95%
I Impediments: Actualization/ Restoration Rendering explicit 2 Corresponding to the two Modes of Resolution, ADAPT makes explicit the two types of professional assistance – Counseling and Therapy. 95%
I-D Dimensions Impediments Rendering explicit 2 ADAPT makes explicit that the first and most fundamental Impediment to growth is failure to acknowledge and embrace the Growth Continuum. 95%
T11 Together-ness: Internal Navigator Increased emphasis 4 ADAPT places greater emphasis on the internalization of various modes of Orchestration -- to free one from dependence on any outside Guidance. 95%
A ADAPT Differentiation 6 ADAPT differentiates the Features of the growth model into four major Domains – Dimensions, Participants, Processes, and Orchestrators (‘To-getherness’). (In our terminology, Wilber’s AQAL model consists of four Dimensions and one Participant.) 95%
D1 Stage Growth Differentiation 6 ADAPT differentiates Wilber’s Stages into two phases of the growth sequence – Stages and Transitions. (see D2 and D1/2) 95%
A ADAPT Revised and expanded interpretation 7 ADAPT substantially revises and expands the interpretation of Features that define human growth. 95%
T Together-ness Broadened emphasis 7 ADAPT increases the emphasis on the experiential aspect of Orchestration, as well as the cognitive.[84] 95%
I Impediments: Actualization Expanded concept 7 ADAPT observes that there are corresponding Actualization Impediments for virtually every ADAPT Feature. 95%
PR6/29 Processes: Psychotherapies Shift in emphasis 9 At each Stage, ADAPT emphasizes Restoration growth techniques for relatively normal people, not those with clinical pathologies. 95%
D4a Realms: Life Passages Elevation of role or status 10 ADAPT elevates Life Passages to the status of true growth – i.e. an alternating sequence of Translations and Transformations – rather than Translation alone.[85] 95%
T1 Together-ness: Parent/s Elevation in importance 10 ADAPT emphasizes the key role of Parenting in the growth process – both Parenting as the central Process of child-raising, and Parenting as the primary prototype for adult growth Processes. Wilber makes little mention of Parenting – except implicitly as a source of certain pathologies. 95%
D4a Realms: Life Passages Added Realm 11 ADAPT adds Life Passages as the external manifestation of Wilber’s ‘gross’ realm. 95%
D5a Life Arenas Added set of Arenas 11 Corresponding to the added Realm of Life Passages, ADAPT outlines a set of Life Arenas – using categories familiar to the counseling and coaching professions. 95%
T3 Together-ness: Holistic Growth Situations Added Mode of Together-ness 11 ADAPT adds Holistic Growth Situations as an important contributor to Together-ness. 95%
  90% Confidence     Number of Instances: 66 90%
D1/2b FDS: Clusters Substantial agreement 1 Both agree that the FDS can be condensed into 12 developmental groupings. Since Wilber’s term ‘fulcrum’ can be ambiguous, ADAPT renames the groupings as Clusters. 90%
D3 State Growth Substantial agreement 1 ADAPT agrees that there are four higher States of consciousness – Psychic, Subtle, Causal, and Non-dual. 90%
D3a Natural States Agreement 1 Both agree that Natural States are the four normal or basic States of consciousness – waking/gross, dreaming/subtle, deep sleep/causal, and nondual. 90%
D3b Altered States Agreement 1 Both agree that Altered States are non-normal, sometimes-induced States – such as meditative States, mystical experiences, Peak Experiences, drug-induced States, and near-death experiences. 90%
D4 Realms Substantial agreement 1 ADAPT agrees that consciousness can be divided into three ‘realms’ or ‘spheres’ – equivalent to Wilber’s ‘sensibilia’/ ‘physio-biosphere’, ‘intelligibilia’/ ‘noosphere’, and ‘transcendentalia’/ ‘theosphere’. 90%
D5b Psyche Arenas Substantial agreement 1 All the Psyche Arenas listed by ADAPT, except D5b Leadership, are specific ‘Lines’ discussed by Wilber. 90%
D5b Psyche Arenas Substantial agreement 1 Wilber and ADAPT substantially agree as to the content of each Psyche Arena. 90%
D5d1 Spirit Arenas: Archetypes and myths Agreement 1 Both agree that Archetypes and Myths are the product of an archaic Stage of cultural development – and that much so-called ‘archetypal’ thinking may be infected by the Pre-/Trans- Fallacy. (see also IA-D1/2e) 90%
PR6/29 Processes: Psychotherapies Substantial agreement 1 Both agree that therapy is often the process of revisiting past moments when malfunctions in the Transition Cycle occurred. 90%
P1 Experienced/Observed Self Substantial agreement 1 Both agree that the Experienced/Observed Self is the central figure in our life journey. ADAPT renames Wilber’s original terms, ‘proximate’ and ‘distal,’ to make them more descriptive of their functions in the growth process. 90%
P1 Experienced/Observed Self Substantial agreement 1 Both agree that growth occurs primarily through the dialectical interplay between the Experienced and Observed Self – by the mechanism of the Transition Cycle (D1/2a). 90%
P3a Gender Types Substantial agreement 1 Both agree that the genders go through comparable Stages of growth, but in the two ‘different voices.’ 90%
P3a Gender Types Substantial agreement 1 Both agree that Translation primarily occurs in men through Agency, in women through Communion. 90%
P3a Gender Types Substantial agreement 1 Both agree that Transformation primarily occurs in men through Eros, in women through Agape. 90%
P3d Inter-Passage Growth Substantial agreement 1 Both agree that growth over a lifetime often proceeds from internal to external to internal. 90%
P3d Inter-Passage Growth Substantial agreement 1 Both agree that Inter-Passage growth is not the ‘return to innocence’ of the Romantic Fallacy. 90%
P7 Witness Agreement 1 Both agree that the Witness is the all-pervasive Seer behind all consciousness – the Transcendent Self, the True Self, our Essence. 90%
T6 Together-ness: Partner/ Spouse Substantial agreement 1 Wilber’s Grace and Grit is an eloquent testament to the crucial importance of sharing important growth Transitions with a partner. 90%
T8 Together-ness: Spiritual Master Substantial agreement 1 Both agree that a trustworthy Spiritual guide, with no pretensions to infallibility or godhood, is essential for spiritual growth. 90%
T9 Together-ness: Other Growth Professionals Substantial agreement 1 Wilber’s attention to Alex Grey in art and Stuart Davis in music (among others) indicates the important role in the growth process Wilber gives to ‘other growth professionals.’ 90%
IR Impediments: Restoration Substantial agreement 1 Both agree that Impasses can result from pernicious Sub-Personalities that can disrupt growth. 90%
IA-D2 Transition Impediments Substantial agreement 1 Both agree that Transitions bring forth some particularly difficult Impediments – because they are experienced as a form of death. 90%
IA-D3 States Impediments: Peak Experiences Substantial agreement 1 Both agree that seeking Peak Experiences without converting them to Permanent Traits is a serious Impediment. 90%
IR-D1/2a Transition Cycle Impediments Substantial agreement 1 Both agree that the major Restoration Impediment is a malfunction of the Transition Cycle. 90%
IR-D1/2a Transition Cycle Impediments Substantial agreement 1 Both agree that the Transition Cycle may malfunction at any of the four phases. 90%
IR-P1 Subpersonalities Agreement 1 Both agree that Subpersonalities are non-integrated scraps of buried identity – which must be converted from Experienced to Observed Self for unobstructed growth to take place. 90%
D7 Actualization & Restoration Growth Rendering explicit 2 ADAPT makes explicit that there are two distinct approaches to the growth process – Actualization for basically healthy people, and Restoration for those with ‘problems.’[86] (see Impediments section) 90%
PR4/ 15-20 Processes: Formal Investigation Making explicit 2 ADAPT makes explicit what is implicit in all Wilber’s work – that well-conceived thought (esp. an adequate conceptual model) is essential for effective growth. In ILP, Cognitive Processes (#s 15-20) are well-represented under the Mind and Ethics Modules, and in the systematic logic and structure underlying all the Modules. 90%
P Participants Collection and consolidation of concepts 3 ADAPT collects and consolidates into Participants (varieties of ‘self’) all the entities described by Wilber that partake in the growth process (and adds P6).[87] 90%
T4 Together-ness: Growth Center Broadened emphasis 4 In Integral Spirituality especially, Wilber extols the offerings of his new Growth Center, Integral Institute.[88] ADAPT emphasizes the unique features and benefits of many established Growth Centers. 90%
T10 Together-ness: Integral Life Guide Broader emphasis 4 If (as we believe) ADAPT offers a broader and more nuanced set of growth Parameters, then an ADAPT-based Guide can provide a comparably-broader growth experience. 90%
D1/2a Dev Sequence: Transition Cycle Restatement of concept 5 For clarity, ADAPT restates Wilber’s three-phase Fulcrum[89] as a four-phase Transition Cycle. Since Wilber’s term ‘fulcrum’ can be ambiguous (both a ‘milestone’ and a pivot point), ADAPT renames the process the Transition Cycle. 90%
D7a Actualization Growth Restatement of concept 5 ADAPT restates the Transition Cycle as the Actualization Cycle – to highlight phases critical to the growth process. 90%
D7b Restoration Growth Restatement of concept 5 ADAPT restates the Transition Cycle as the Restoration Cycle – to highlight phases critical to the treatment process. 90%
IR Impediments: Restoration Restatement of process 5 ADAPT restates Wilber’s therapeutic ‘uncovering’ process as the four-phase Restoration Cycle. 90%
D5 Arenas Differentiation 6 ADAPT differentiates Wilber’s ‘Lines’ into the nested categories of Arenas, Lines, Studies, and Issues. 90%
D7a Actualization Growth Differentiation 6 ADAPT differentiates between two modes of implementing Actualization – Guidance and Orchestration. 90%
P3c Enneagram Roles Differentiation 6 ADAPT distinguishes between Enneagram Roles that are Dominant and others that are Contributing. 90%
T Together-ness Differentiation 6 ADAPT differentiates Wilber’s ‘integration’ into Guidance and Orchestration – to indicate distinct functions of Together-ness. 90%
T Together-ness Added and differentiated categorization 6 ADAPT differentiates between three types of Guidance & Orchestration – Collective, Individual, and Internal. 90%
I Impediments: Actualization/ Restoration Differentiation 6 Corresponding to the two modes of growth, ADAPT identifies two types of Impediment – Limitations and Impasses. 90%
I Impediments: Actualization/ Restoration Differentiation 6 Corresponding to the two types of Impediment, ADAPT identifies two types of Resolution – Actualization and Restoration. 90%
A ADAPT Reorganization, revision, & expansion of conception 7 ADAPT provides a substantially expanded structure for organizing and categorizing the Parameters of the Growth Dynamic. 90%
D Dimensions Expanded conception 7 ADAPT expands the total Dimensions to eight – and adds several sub-Dimensions. (see D-sections below) (In our terminology, AQAL contains four of these Dimensions.) 90%
D1/2b Fundamental Developmental Sequence Extension of concept 7 For completeness, ADAPT adds to the FDS a step before birth (Heritage) and after death (Legacy). 90%
D1/2e Dev Sequence/ Collective Expanded concept 7 ADAPT expands Collective growth beyond just Cultural -- to include all groups from couples, to families, to workgroups, to teams, to communities, to cultures. (see P2) 90%
D4 Realm Growth Expanded application 7 ADAPT emphasizes the potential for growth in all four Realms. Wilber focuses almost exclusively on two of these – what we call Psyche and Spirit.[90] 90%
D6b Vectors of Growth Extended concept 7 In addition to Wilber’s four perspectives of the Quadrants, ADAPT proposes four paths of growth – inner and outer Realms, combined with Individual and Collective Participants. 90%
PR Processes: Actualization Expanded array of Processes 7 ADAPT posits 33 Processes of growth, divided among seven Themes. For Actualization Growth, Wilber names about 12 Processes among his 17 categories. (for all Actualization Processes below, see Appendix B1) 90%
PR Processes: Restoration Expanded array of Processes 7 ADAPT posits 33 Processes of growth divided among seven Themes. For Restoration Growth, Wilber concentrates on four Processes (see PR 6-7 below) from two of ADAPT’s Themes. (for all Restoration Processes below, see Appendix B3) 90%
PR7/ 32-33 Processes: Conscious Development Expanded conception 7 ADAPT expands and extends the definition of Integral. The ILP program as a whole is an excellent Holistic Experience (#32). By our definition, ILP is not truly Integral (#33) until woven together at a level deeper than conceptual by various modes of Orchestration. 90%
PR7/33 Processes: Integral Programs Broadened scope 7 If ADAPT covers (as we believe) a broader, more nuanced range of Parameters, an Integral ADAPT program may offer a more diverse array of strategies and a more subtle interweaving of those approaches. 90%
P2a Collective Self Expanded concept 7 ADAPT expands the Collective Self from Culture alone[91] to include all groups from couples, the families, to work-groups, to teams, to communities, to cultures. (see D1b) 90%
P3d Inter-Passage Growth Expanded conception 7 ADAPT expands Wilber’s ‘U-shaped’ growth pattern[92] into a more extended conception of Inter-Passage growth -- encompassing all four Realms. 90%
P5 Impediment Self Broadened category 7 ADAPT creates a broader category of pathological entities, the Impediment Self, which includes the Subpersonalities but is not limited to them. (see Impediments section) 90%
Ac ADAPT: Methodology Broadened methodology 8 Wilber’s positions appear largely derived from the psychological literature, the perennial traditions, and descriptions of therapeutic practice. ADAPT adds to these, further derivations from professional and personal experience -- including counseling clients, teaching school, studying imaginative literature, extensive personal growth experience, and raising children.[93] 90%
PR Processes Methodology/ Derivation 8 Wilber derives his Processes primarily from the psychological and spiritual literature and prevailing therapeutic practice. ADAPT derives its Processes primarily from their original source, Parenting/ Child Rearing. 90%
D6b Vectors of Growth Shift in emphasis 9 ADAPT emphasizes all four Realms of growth in any truly Integral growth program. 90%
T7 Together-ness: Therapist Shift in emphasis 9 ADAPT often favors non-traditional, humanistic growth professionals who combine intuitive, experiential, body-aware therapies with traditional verbal exploration. AQAL Journal articles often appear to favor traditional clinical psychology and psychiatry, broadened to include the AQAL Parameters. 90%
D7a Actualization Growth Added conception 11 ADAPT identifies parenting/ Child Rearing as the original application of the Actualization Cycle. 90%
PR1/ 1-4 Processes: Foundational Added Processes 11 ADAPT adds numerous Processes and Modalities. In ILP, Natural Nutrition (#1) is represented only in diet programs listed under the Body Module. Natural Medicine (#2) is not represented. Certain aspects of Nurturing & Bonding (#3) are covered under the Sex, Shadow, Emotions, and Relationships Modules. Family Dynamics (#4) receives some coverage under the Shadow and Relationships (Integral Parenting) Modules. 90%
PR2/ 5-8 Processes: Physical World Added Processes 11 ADAPT adds numerous Processes and Modalities. In ILP, Sensory Awareness (#5) and Physical Activity (#6) are somewhat represented in the Body and Sex Modules. Some aspects of Life Experience (#7) are covered under the Work module. Natural Environment (#8) not represented. 90%
PR3/ 9-14 Processes: Socio-Cultural Added Processes 11 ADAPT adds numerous Processes and Modalities. In ILP, Skills, Habits, Responsibility, Enterprise, and Service (#s 9-13) are somewhat represented under the Work, Relationships, and Ethics Modules. Acculturation (#14) receives some representation through practices from diverse cultures in all Modules. 90%
PR5/ 21-26 Processes: Self-Expression Added Processes 11 ADAPT adds numerous Processes and Modalities. In ILP, there is some representation for all Self-Expression Processes (#s 21-26) under the Emotions (Creative Expression & Art) and Shadow (Art & Music Therapy) Modules. Archetype & Myth (#26) receive some coverage under the Shadow (Dreamwork) and Spirit Modules. 90%
PR6/ 27-31 Processes: Conscious Development Added Processes 11 ADAPT adds numerous Processes and Modalities. In ILP, there is limited representation for Body Therapies (#27) under Body and Sex Modules. Introspection and Psychotherapies (#28-29) are well-covered under the Shadow, Emotions, Relationships, and Sex Modules. Psycho-Biologic Techniques (#30) are not represented. Spiritual Practices (#31) are well-covered under the Spirit, Body, and Sex Modules. 90%
IA Impediments: Actualization Added concept 11 ADAPT identifies the source of Actualization Impediments as disruptions in the Actualization Cycle. 90%
  85% Confidence     Number of Instances: 6 85%
P4 Functional Self Substantial agreement 1 Both agree that the Functional Self does not undergo Stage-like development – but may in some cases be a Stage with which we identify. 85%
D1/2b Fundamental Developmental Sequence Rendering explicit 2 ADAPT renders explicit a growth sequence that is implicit in Wilber’s Tables (especially the vertical coordinate displayed on each page).[94] 85%
P4 Functional Self Collection and consolidation of versions 3 ADAPT collects and consolidates the many versions of Wilber’s ‘functional invariants’ into a single list of the ten most plausible candidates[95] – and then renames the concept as Functional Self to emphasize its role as a Participant in the growth process. 85%
IR Impediments: Restoration Restatement of concept 5 ADAPT restates Wilber’s concept of ‘pathology’ as an Impasse in the Actualization Cycle. 85%
PR6/30 Processes: Psycho-biologic techniques Added Process 11 ADAPT introduces a non-psychologic mode of resolving Restoration Impediments. 85%
IA Impediments: Actualization Added concept 11 ADAPT identifies the condition of Blighting -- for Limitations left too long without attention. 85%
  80% Confidence     Number of Instances: 20 80%
Aa ADAPT: Growth Continuum Substantial agreement 1 ADAPT agrees that the Growth Continuum is the manifestation of a great morphogenetic field of development, and that mankind’s greatest drive is to actualize that Continuum through one’s own personal growth. ADAPT names that field the Growth Continuum to emphasize its function in human development. 80%
D1/2e Dev Sequence/ Cultural Substantial agreement 1 Both agree that Cultures follow a Stage-related path of development similar to individuals, but spread over eons of time. (see P2) 80%
D1/2e Dev Sequence/ Cultural Substantial agreement 1 Both agree that Spiral Dynamics is a prime example of Culture Passages. 80%
D5d Spirit Arenas [under development] Substantial agreement 1 ADAPT agrees there may be several Spiritual Arenas in which such growth takes place. Both agree that the character of such Arenas is yet to be determined. (see also D4d) 80%
P2b Cultural Self Substantial agreement 1 Both agree that there is a Cultural identity that goes through Stages of growth very similar to Individuals. 80%
T12 Together-ness: Witness Agreement 1 Both agree that the Witness is our ultimate source of internal Orchestration. 80%
IA-D1/2e Pre-/Trans- Fallacy Impediments Substantial agreement 1 Both agree that the Pre-/Trans- Fallacy is an especially pervasive and pernicious Impediment. (see D5d1) ADAPT renames Wilber’s concept as the Romantic/ Inverse Romantic Fallacy to make the term more intuitive. 80%
D4d Realms: Spirit Passages [under development] Making explicit 2 A substantial proportion of Wilber’s Tables outline ‘spiritual’ development sequences. ADAPT makes explicit that these may be collected into a distinct Realm. (but see D3) 80%
P3 Personae & Types Enlarged role and increased emphasis 4 ADAPT assigns Personae & Types a more significant role in the growth process.[96] ADAPT emphasizes that each may undergo their own versions of Stage-like development. 80%
D4 Realms Restatement and Simplification 5 ADAPT restates and simplifies the three Realms into Body, Psyche, and Spirit.[97] 80%
P3 Personae & Types Differentiation 6 ADAPT differentiates between Types (simple categorizations of personalities) and Personae (identities constructed to engage in the drama of life). 80%
D6e Evolution/Involution Substantial agreement 7 Both agree that growth cycles through twin Polarities -- an ascending arc of Evolution, then a descending arc of Involution.[98] 80%
D6e Evolution/Involution Extended concept 7 While Wilber focuses on the spiritual aspect of Evolution/ Involution, ADAPT applies this concept to all four Realms. 80%
PR6/27 Processes: Body Therapies Broadened applicability 7 In Wilber’s Archeological Model of the Realms, Body Therapies are applicable only during the early Stages of development, or for people revisiting those Stages in therapy. In ADAPT’s Multi-Functional Model, bodywork is applicable to the entire span of the developmental sequence – both for healthy people and those with ‘problems.’ 80%
Ac ADAPT: Methodology Methodology – extended metaphor 8 ADAPT adds the journey (esp. Homer’s The Odyssey) as a consistent, overarching metaphorical parallel to the growth process – both to illustrate important points and as an analytical source for further insights. 80%
D6d Cyclic flow Shift in conception and emphasis 9 ADAPT conceives of growth as a tree-like oscillation or cyclic movement between Polarities -- not as a ladder-like upward spiral, trajectory, or ascent. 80%
D5d1 Spirit Arenas: Archetypes and myths [under development] Elevation of concept 10 In addition to the above, ADAPT views Archetypes and Myths as a subtle language that is potentially useful for describing, apprehending, accessing, and evoking many States of consciousness – including the higher States (cf. Process 5/26). 80%
P3c Enneagram Roles Increased validity and status 10 ADAPT views as credible the evidence that Enneagram Roles represent distinct and fundamental Personae – not just arbitrary personality categories. 80%
P3b Birth Order Types Added concept 11 ADAPT adds Birth-Order as an important class of Types. 80%
D3 State Growth Differing conception 12 ADAPT views Spirit, not only as an Upper-Left internal experience, but as an Upper-Right objective reality. 80%
  75% Confidence     Number of Instances: 2 75%
D4c Realms: Body Passages (experienced) [under development] Added Realm 11 In consonance with the Eastern conception of the Chakras (D1/2c), ADAPT proposes to add Body Passages as a separate Realm of growth. (See also PR 6/27) 75%
D5c Body Arenas (experienced) [under development] Added set of Arenas 11 Corresponding to the proposed Realm of Body Passages, ADAPT proposes a set of Body Arenas – to be drawn from the fields of alternative medicine, body-oriented therapies, and body-oriented spiritual practices. 75%
  70% Confidence     Number of Instances: 3 70%
D1/2c The Chakras Expanded conception 7 ADAPT re-conceives Wilber’s ‘fulcrums’ as Chakras -- to encompass not just the Western concept of a consolidated FDS, but the Eastern concept of energy phenomena manifested simultaneously in the three internal Realms of Body, Psyche, and Spirit. (See also D3b) 70%
D3 State Growth [under development] Expansion of concept 7 In addition to Wilber’s five possible conceptions of Spirit,[99] ADAPT suggests two others – that Spirit may be a distinct Realm (D4), or a distinct Dimension (D3). 70%
D4 Realms: Architecture of Self Differing conception 12 ADAPT’s conception of the Architecture of Self differs significantly from that of Wilber. Wilber employs an ‘archeological’ Stacked Model,[100] while ADAPT uses a ‘retrofitted’ Multi-Functionality Model. (see D1/2c) 70%
  60% Confidence     Number of Instances: 2 60%
D1/2d Generation Cycle Added Dimension 11 ADAPT proposes an additional Dimension, the Generation Cycle -- as the cultural equivalent of the Transition Cycle for individuals. 60%
P6 Generational Self Added Participant 11 ADAPT adds to Participants the Generational Self -- a type of Collective Self that identifies with a particular Generation in the Generation Cycle. (See D1/2d.) 60%

Table of Contents

Table B1: INTEGRAL LIFE PRACTICE
-- from Integral Spirituality

This Table shows correspondences between Ken Wilber’s ILP Processes and those of ADAPT. It is intended to demonstrate which ADAPT Processes are well-covered by ILP, and which not. As you will note, the ILP Methodologies recommended by Wilber cover less than half of the 33 Processes in the ADAPT model.

This Table displays the nine Modules of Ken Wilber’s Integral Life Practice, with their attendant Methodologies -- as presented in Integral Spirituality (2006), page 203. According to Wilber, a Module is ‘any aspect of human capacity that can be trained’ (p. 202). The four Core (foundational) Modules are shown on the first page, with five Auxiliary Modules shown on the second page. An Asterisk (*) indicates methodologies Wilber designates as ‘Gold Star.’ In [#brackets], we indicate which of ADAPT’s 33 Processes correspond most closely to a particular ILP Methodology.

Sample Practices

CORE MODULES [* = Gold Star practices]
Body
Physical, Subtle, Causal
Mind
Framework, View
Spirit
Meditation, Prayer
Shadow
Therapia
Weight-lifting (P) [#6] Reading & study [# 16, 18] Zen [#31] Gestalt therapy [#29]
       
Aerobics (P, S) [#6] Belief system
[#s 33, 16]
Centering prayer [#31] Cognitive therapy [#29, 18]
       
F.I.T. (P, S) * [?] Integral (AQAL) framework [#s 33, 17] Big Mind meditation *
[#31]
3-2-1 Process [#29]
       
Diet – Atkins [#1]
Ornish, The Zone (P)
Mental training [#18] Kabbalah [#31] Dreamwork [#29, 28, 26]
       
ILP Diet (P) * [#1] Taking multiple perspectives [#s 16, 18] Compassionate exchange * [#31, 8] Interpersonal [#29, 3, 4]
       
T’ai Chi Ch’uan (S)
[#s 31, 6]
Any worldview of meaning system that works for you| [#s 33, 16] Transcendental meditation [#31] Psychoanalysis [#29, 28]
       
Qi Gong (S) [#s 31. 6]   Integral inquiry *
[#s 33, 31, 16, 18]
Art & music therapy
[#29, 25]
       
Yoga (P, S) [#s 31, 6]   The 1-2-3 of God * [#31]  
       
3-Body Workout
(P, S, C) [#s, 31, 29, 6]
     

Table B1. INTEGRAL LIFE PRACTICE -- from Integral Spirituality (cont.)

Sample Practices

AUXILIARY MODULES
Ethics Sex Work Emotions Relationships
Codes of conduct
[#s 11, 13, 18, 31]
Tantra
[#s 31, 5, 3, 6]
Right livelihood
[#s 11, 12, 13, 7, 31]
Transforming emotions * [#s 29, 31, 28] Integral relationships * [#3, 4, 29]
         
Professional ethics
[#s 11, 13, 18, 31]
Integral sexual yoga *
[#s 31, 5, 3, 6]
Professional training [#9, 7, 10, 19] Emotional intelligence training
[#29, 28]
Integral parenting *
[#3, 4, 11, 13]
         
Social & ecological activism
[#11, 12, 13, 14, 8]
Kama Sutra
[#s 31, 5, 3, 6]
Money management [#s 11, 19] Bhakti yoga (devotional practices)
[#31, 29]
Communication skills [#s 29, 21, 3]
         
Self-discipline [#10, 9, 11] Kundalini yoga
[#s 31, 5, 3, 6]
Work as a mode of ILP * [#s 7, 11, 13, 31] Emotional mindfulness practice
[#31, 29, 28, 5]
Couples therapy
[#s 29, 21, 3, 11]
         
Integral ethics *
[#s 11, 13, 18, 31]
Sexual transformative practice
[#s 31, 5, 3, 6]
Kama yoga
[#s 11, 13, 19, 31]
Tonglen (compassionate exchange meditation) [#31, 3] Relational spiritual practice [#s 31, 3]
         
Sportsmanship
[#11, 13, 31, 6, 9]
  Community service & volunteering
[#9, 11, 13]
Creative expression & art [#25, 21] Right association (Sangha)
[#s 31, 3, 11]
         
Vows & oaths
[#11, 16, 31]
  Work as transformation
[#s 7, 11, 13]
  Conscious marriage [#s 3, 4, 29, 28, 11]

* = ILP Gold Star practices.

Table of Contents

Table B2. INTEGRAL LIFE PRACTICE (precursor)
– from Integral Psychology & One Taste

This Table displays correspondences between Ken Wilber’s ILP Processes and those of ADAPT. It is intended to demonstrate which ADAPT Processes are well-covered by ILP, and which not. As you will note, the ILP methodologies recommended by Wilber in this older version ILP cover less than half of the 33 Processes in the ADAPT model. This Table displays the four Quadrants of Ken Wilber’s Integral Life Practice, as presented in One Taste, 1999 (pp. 140-41) and Integral Psychology, 2000 (pp. 113-14). The Upper Quadrants are shown on the first page, with the Lower Quadrants shown on the second. In [#brackets], we indicate which of our 33 Processes correspond most closely to a particular ILP Module.

Upper Left Quadrant
Individual, Subjective, Intentional
Upper Right Quadrant
Individual, Objective, Behavioral
Emotional: Breath [#s 31, 27, 6]
T’ai chi, yoga, bioenergetics, circulation of prana or feeling energy, qi gong
Physical: Diet [#s 1, 2]
Pritikin, Ornish, Atkins, Eades; vitamins; hormones
   
Emotional: Sex [#s 31, 3, 6, 27]
Tantric sexual communion, self-transcending whole-bodied sexuality
Physical: Structural [#6, 27]
Weight-lifting, aerobics, hiking, Rolfing
   
Mental: Therapy [#29, 28]
Psychotherapy, cognitive therapy, shadow work
Neurological: Pharmacological [#2, 30]
Various medications/ drugs, where appropriate
   
Mental: Vision [#33, 16]
Adopting a conscious philosophy of life, visualization, affirmations
Neurological: Brain/Mind Machines [#31]
To help induce theta and delta states of consciousness
   
Spiritual: Psychic (shaman, yogi) [#31, 26]
Shamanic, nature mysticism, beginning tantric
 
   
Spiritual: Subtle (saint) [#31]
Deity yoga/ mysticism, yidam, contemplative prayer, advanced tantric
 
   
Spiritual: Causal (sage) [#31]
Vipassana, self-inquiry, bare attention, centering prayer, Witnessing, formless mysticism
 
   
Spiritual: Non-dual (siddha) [#31]
Dzogchen, Mahamudra, Shaivism, Zen, Eckhart, non-dual mysticism
 

Table B2: INTEGRAL LIFE PRACTICE
– from Integral Psychology & One Taste (cont.)

Lower Left Quadrant
Cultural, Intersubjective
Lower Right Quadrant
Social, Interobjective
Relationships [#3, 4, 11, 13, 29]
With family, friends, sentient beings in general; making relationships part of one’s growth, decentering the self
Systems [#33, 11, 13, 16, 15]
Exercising responsibilities to Gaia, nature, biosphere, and geopolitical infrastructures at all levels
   
Community service [#13, 11]
Volunteer work, homeless centers, hospice, etc.
Institutional [#11, 13, 14, 19]
Exercising educational, political, and civic duties to family, town, state, nation, world
   
Morals [#11, 13, 16]
Engaging the intersubjective world of the Good, practicing compassion in relation to all sentient beings
 

Table of Contents

Table B3.
PATHOLOGIES & TREATMENT MODALITIES
– from Integral Psychology

This Table summarizes Wilber’s approach to Restoration Processes – resolution methodologies for people who have ‘problems.’ These Studies[101] by Ken Wilber trace the potential Pathologies and corresponding Treatments for each Fulcrum of development. Pathologies (our ‘Restoration Impediments’) are the mental disorders that can cause the growth process to go wrong. Treatments (our ‘Resolutions,’ ‘Processes,’ and ‘Modalities’) are the techniques or therapies designed to overcome those Pathologies. A Fulcrum is one entire Transition Cycle of Stage and Transition. Columns 1 & 2 give the number and name of each Step of Wilber’s Fundamental Developmental Sequence (FDS). Column 3 gives the name of each Fulcrum in the FDS with the range of Steps covered}. Column 4 gives the definition for that Fulcrum. Columns 5 & 6 shows typical Pathologies and Mental Disorders that occur at a given Fulcrum. Column 7 describes Wilber’s recommended Treatment for each such Pathology.

To derive the most from this Table, read it from Bottom to Top – in order of increasing development.

[Read Table from bottom to top – in order of increasing development.]
PATHOLOGIES & TREATMENT MODALITIES – Ken Wilber
  TOPIC Fulcrums Fulcrum Definitions Fulcrum pathologies Name of Mental disorder Recommended Treatment
  WILBER SOURCE:
IP 92-100,102-8, 197,205 IP 93, 96-97 IP 93, 96-97 IP 92-98, 197 IP 98-100, 197
  Study
Category
IP 92-100, 102-08
  FUNDAMENTAL DEVELOPMENTAL SEQUENCE (Wilber) DEVELOPMENTAL SEQUENCES
38 [Beyond consciousness/ Divine] [00. AFTER DEATH]
  • 37-38}
  •        
    37 - transition -          
    36 Non-dual: Late          
    35 Non-dual: Middle          
    34 Non-dual: Early [10. NON-DUAL]
  • 34-36}
  •       Path of siddhas. Always/ already accomplished in present moment. Nondual mysticism.
    33 - transition -          
    32 Causal: Late       Arhat’s disease  
    31 Causal (formless): Early 9. CAUSAL (spirit)
  • 31-33}
  • Soul grows quiet, rests. Witness releases hold, dissolves.   Failed differentiation
    Causal
    Path of sages. Pure emptiness, dissolve subject-object dualism. Formless mysticism.
    30 - transition -          
    29 Subtle: Late       Archetypal fragmentation  
    28 Subtle (archetype): Early 8. SUBTLE
  • 26.5-30}
  • Soul emerges permanently into csness. Intermediary between self & spirit   Failed integration
    Subtle
    Path of saints. Deep psychic & subtle. Audible illuminations, haloes of light & sound. Deity mysticism.
    27 - transition -          
    26 Psychic: Late       Yogic illness
    Pranic disorder
     
    25 Psychic (vision): Early 7. PSYCHIC (soul)
  • 23.5-26.5}
  • Transpersonal domain comes into focus   Split-life goals
    Psychic inflation
    Psychic
    Path of shamans/ yogis. Energy currents in gross realm & gross bodymind. Nature mysticism. Sahasrara.
    24 - transition -          
    23 Vision/ logic: Late       Bad faith  
    22 Vision/logic:Middle       Aborted self- actualization  
    21 Vision/ logic: Early 6. INTEGRATED (centaur)
  • 21-23.5}


  • Shift to universal existential principles: life/death, authenticity, self-actualization, global awareness, bodymind integration   Inauthenticity
    Deadening
    Existential
    Existential therapy
    20 - transition -          
    19 Formal: Late       Sublimation
    Anticipation
     
    18 Formal: Early 5. MATURE EGO (rational reflexive)
  • 16.5-20}
  • Self-reflexive ego emerges, shift from conformist to individualist Identity crisis. Role confusion. Shift to self-derived universal principles Suppression
    Ego
    Introspection
    17 - transition -          
    16 Rule/role: Late       Covert intentions  
    15 Rule/role: Early 4. ROLE SELF (persona)
  • 13.5-16.5}
  • Shift to roles and rules of society. Prescriptive morality. Often displayed in traits of mythic gods Script pathology: False, misleading scripts, stories, myths Duplicitous transaction
    Script
    Script analysis
    14 - transition -       Displacement  
    13 Concept       Reaction formation  
    12 Endocept 3. MENTAL SELF (self-concept)
  • 10.5-13.5}
  • Conceptual mind emerges, differentiates from emotional body Differentiation: Fusion with emotional self.
    Integration: Repressions of emotional self (classic neurosis)
    Isolation
    Repression
    Neurosis
    Uncovering: Relax repression barrier, uncover & recontact shadow self, reintegrate into psyche
    11 Symbol
    - transition -
             
    10 Image       Splitting  
    9 Impulse/ emotion 2. EMOTIONAL SELF
  • 8-10.5}
  • Identity switches from fusion with material body to identity with emotional-feeling body Narcissism (others as extensions of self)
    Boundary disorders (invasion, disruption of boundaries)
    Projection Structure-building: Build self’s boundaries, strengthen ego.
    8 - transition -       Self/object fusion
    Borderline psychosis
     
    7 Exocept          
    6 Perception       Wish fulfillment  
    5 Sensation       Hallucination
    Delusional projection
     
    4 Matter: Molecular, polymer       Distortion
    Psychosis
    Medication/ pacification
    3 Matter: Atomic 1. PHYSICAL SELF
  • 3-7}
  • Differentiates body from environment Can’t tell where body ends, world begins. Can’t tell fantasy from reality.    
    2 Matter: Subatomic
    - transition -
            Intensive regressive therapies
    1 [Before matter/ Void] 0. BEFORE CONCEPTION
  • 1-2}
  •        

    Table of Contents

    Appendix C:
    IMPEDIMENTS TO THE GROWTH PROCESS

    Impediments are all the ways the growth process can go wrong. Impediments can cause the growth process to be diverted, distorted, neglected, split off, repressed, denied, ignored, or avoided.

    ctualization Impediments (Limitations, Guidance Impediments, or Human Potential Impediments) are overt difficulties or challenges faced by relatively healthy people. Actualization Impediments can be resolved by a fairly straightforward process of Actualization – which may include Recognition, Engagement, Breakthrough, and Integration (see Impediments & Resolutions section). Such Resolutions are often provided by a Counselor, Coach, Coordinator, Orchestrator, or Guide – using any of our 33 Processes (limited use of Self-Conscious Development). Guidance is the primary growth mode used in the original growth process, Child-Rearing.

    Restoration Impediments (Impasses, Therapeutic Impediments, or Pathologies) are submerged or subconscious difficulties faced by people with ‘problems.’ Restoration Impediments can be resolved by a comparatively intensive process of Therapy – which may include Resurrecting, Confronting, Reexperiencing, and Reintegrating (see Impediments & Resolutions section). Such Resolutions are generally provided by a trained, licensed therapist or healing professional – such as a clinical psychologist, psychiatrist, or doctor -- using Self-Conscious Development Processes such as Body Therapies, Psychotherapy, and Psycho-biologic Techniques.

    Virtually every Feature of growth – every Dimension, Participant, Process, and Mode of Together-ness -- has potential Actualization Impediments which can limit its effectiveness. Compared to Actualization Impediments, there are relatively few types of Restoration Impediment.

    Section I-D:
    DIMENSIONS IMPEDIMENTS

    I-D: IMPEDIMENTS -- DIMENSIONS

    We may be unable (or unwilling) to acknowledge the existence or importance of the Growth Continuum.

    Ex: “We’re pretty much born a certain way. We spend our lives just trying to make the best of it.”

    Or, we may be unwilling (or unable) to embrace and actualize the Growth Continuum.

    Ex: “I’m better off staying the way I am. Better a devil you know than a devil you don’t.”

    IA-D: ACTUALIZATION IMPEDIMENTS -- DIMENSIONS

    IA-D1: Stage impediments

    (see D1)

    We can avoid, or fail to confront, the challenges that are inherent in a given Stage of development.

    Ex: “As a young adult, I’ve been putting off seeking a challenging job.”

    Or, in facing those challenges, we may fail to surmount them.

    Ex: “As a young adult, I found a job I liked, but got fired for irresponsibility.”

    If severely challenged or thwarted, we may regress back to a previous Stage – or shift our efforts to another Realm or Arena entirely.

    Ex: “I’m thinking of going back to school, so my parents will take care of me.”

    IA-D2: Transition impediments

    (see D2, and also DIT below)

    We may have trouble relinquishing the comforts of a prior Stage.

    Ex: “As a Mid-lifer in Transition, I’m reluctant to give up the perks of wealth and success – if I should try to pursue my true calling.”

    Or, we may have difficulty facing the challenges of the new Stage.

    Ex: “As a Mid-lifer, it’s too painful to resurrect all those long-buried dreams, failed aspirations, and missed opportunities of my youth.”

    IA-D1/2: Stage/transition impediments

    (see D1/2)

    o IA-D1/2a: Transition Cycle impediments

    See IA-D1/2a.

    o IA-D1/2d: Generation Cycle impediments.

    At a cultural level, The Generation Cycle may be disrupted by social catastrophe.

    Ex: “The Generation Cycle in 18th Century America was aborted – when so many hopeful, loyal, patriotic Civics were wiped out in the Civil War.”

    Or, the Generation Cycle may lapse altogether (‘de-generate’), if the culture slips into static, non-progressive behavior – perhaps as a result of political-economic difficulties and/or loss of vision.

    Ex: “The Golden Age of Israel progressed from Samuel (Prophetic), to Saul (Reactive), to David (Civic), to Solomon (Bureaucratic) – but then rapidly fragmented and deteriorated as a result of Solomon’s excesses.”

    IA-D1/2f: Romantic Fallacy impediments

    We may confuse primitive and advanced Stages. (see D1a) We may interpret archaic, mythical Stages as transcendent – thereby diverting our genuine quest into immature behaviors (the Romantic Fallacy).

    Ex: “I’m quitting my job, and going back to the land – so I can get in touch with my deeper self.”

    Or, we may mistake transcendent mystical States for low-level Stages or pathologies -- thereby casting under suspicion the very existence of transcendent States (the Inverse Romantic Fallacy).

    Ex: “All those mystics and yogis are just nut cases that haven’t been diagnosed yet.”

    Together, these pernicious and pervasive Impediments are known as the Pre-/Trans- Fallacy.

    IA-D3: State impediments

    We may have trouble achieving Higher States of consciousness. (see D3)

    Ex: “When I try to meditate, I become fidgety and distracted – so I never fall into a really deep State of consciousness.”

    Or we may have trouble relinquishing them, once we’ve tasted their pleasures.

    Ex: “I get so high on meditation, I lose connection with my job and my social life.”

    Alternatively, we may seek Peak Experiences and temporary Altered States through drugs, dance, group psychotherapy, etc. – but never convert them into Permanent States or Traits:

    Ex: “An Esalen group encounter is a better high than pot – but the joy seems to fade too quickly once I leave.”

    IA-D4: Realm impediments

    We may concentrate on the Realms we do best at, and ignore the ones where we have trouble succeeding. (see D4)

    Ex: “I tend to avoid the practical issues in the Realm of Real Life. I prefer to live my life in the Realms of Psyche and Spirit.”

    We may experience Impediments in the Realm of Life Passages:

    Ex: “Many boys who experience their greatest success and popularity in high school go through life as big, overgrown kids.”

    We may experience Impediments in the Realm of Psyche Passages:

    Ex: “Some business people remain ruthless and selfish throughout their entire lives – as if they never outgrow their fear of annihilation.”

    We may experience Impediments in the Realm of Body Passages:

    Ex: “When anxiety blocks my solar plexus, my energy flow gets constricted halfway between my feet and my head.”

    We may experience Impediments in the Realm of Spirit Passages:

    Ex: “Religious rituals are just empty charades designed to bilk gullible believers.”

    We may also experience Inter-Passage Impediments. (see PIR-P3)

    IA-D5: Arena impediments

    We may concentrate on the Arenas we do best at, and ignore the ones where we have trouble succeeding. (see D5)

    Ex: “In the Psyche Arenas, I’m great at feelings and relationships, but I avoid thinking and expressing opinions, because I’m afraid of embarrassing myself.”

    Or, we may obsess about the Arenas we do poorly in, and neglect those where we have most chance of success.

    Ex: “In the Life Arenas, I’m so obsessed about succeeding in my career that I’m neglecting the one thing that’s gone well for me – my relationship.”

    IA-D6: Vector & direction impediments

    IA-D6a: Quadrant impediments

    We may concentrate all our attention on just one Quadrant or Vector, and ignore or neglect the rest.

    Ex: “I’m trying to overcome my depression with mood drugs (UR) – but I have trouble admitting the effect of my demeaning job (LL), the cut-throat culture we live in (LR), and the sterile home environment I grew up in (UL).”

    Or, we may spread our focus across all four Quadrants and Vectors, but never explore deeply in any one of them.

    Ex: “I’ve considered all the factors that could be causing my depression – but I don’t feel much motivation to do anything about it.”

    IA-D6b: Vector impediments

    We may emphasize a single Vector, at the expense of the other three.

    Ex: “I’m concerned with the betterment of mankind through social change, so I ignore the personal needs and desires of both myself and my family.”

    IA-D6c: Direction/Polarity impediments

    We may be all-head -- over-emphasizing the exhilaration of the ascending Direction of growth.

    Ex: “As an enlightened meditator, I am filled with compassion for humanity, but don’t actually care much for individuals.”

    Ex: “As a gifted thinker, I can solve differential equations in my head, but have trouble tying my shoelaces.”

    Or we may be all-feelings -- over-indulging in the comforts of the descending Direction.

    Ex: “I feel so deeply for my kids, that I give them everything they want. I never think how that might stunt their initiative later in life.”

    IA-D6d: Cyclic Flow impediments

    We may conceive of growth as an upward trajectory – where we should concentrate on the highest frontiers of our consciousness

    Ex: “Now that I’ve passed through my physical and mental phases, I concentrate most of my attention on meditation.”

    Or, we may acknowledge the cyclic flow – but never strive toward excellence at either Polarity:

    Ex: “In my gardening and nature walks, I stay in touch with the cyclic flow of nature. I have no need for grand achievements, or even deep emotions.”

  • IA-D6e: Evolution/Involution impediments
  • We may explore the path of Evolution thoroughly, but be reluctant to return to our true nature through Involution.

    Ex: “I get so high on my own enlightenment that I seldom feel concern for others.”

    Or, we may attempt to avoid the Evolutionary challenges, and prematurely escape to Involutionary comforts.

    Ex: “I’ve never tried to make much of myself – because I was just too content sitting at mom’s kitchen table.”

    IA-D8: Coordination impediments

    We may exploit our strongest, most lavishly-rewarded Talents, while neglecting or avoiding our weakest, or least-rewarded attributes. As a result, our constitution may become over-developed in one area (say, career) – with all the attendant stress and exhaustion to our systems – while our other capabilities (say, emotions) may atrophy through under-use.

    Ex: “I have lots of psychological self-knowledge, and a pretty solid spiritual path, but I can’t find a satisfying job or maintain a long-term relationship.”

    Alternatively, we may become content with mediocrity -- never developing any of our gifts to a level approaching their potential. (see D8)

    Ex: “I could have become a successful concert pianist, but because of my inheritance, I never had to try my hardest at anything.”

    IR-D: RESTORATION IMPEDIMENTS -- DIMENSIONS

    IR-D1/2: Stage/transition impediments

    o IR-D1/2a: Transition Cycle impediments.

    Among Restoration Impediments, the most prominent are malfunctions of the Transition Cycle. (see D1/2a) Problems may develop in any of the four phases:

    1. Weak bonding (vs. Identification). Our identification or bonding to the initial Stage may be weak or tenuous. Thus, we can lack a solid platform from which to move forward with confidence and strength.
    Ex: “Because I was not well-nurtured, I’m an insecure baby.”

    2. Fixation (vs. Differentiation). We may cling to the old Stage, failing to Differentiate – remaining fixated, fused, embedded, arrested.
    Ex: “Because I fear change, I won’t give up my babyhood.”

    3. Disattachment (vs. Re-identification). We may fail to establish a solid bond or commitment to the new Stage – thereby leaving ourselves disattached, alienated, fragmented, rootless, homeless, in limbo.
    Ex: “I’m no longer a baby, but I can’t cope with the challenges of becoming a toddler.”

    4. Dissociation (vs. Integration). We may dissociate ourselves from the prior Stage – avoiding, denying, repressing, or disowning the Observed Self. We may thereby force it underground, creating an inner saboteur, or Gremlin, with all the classic symptoms of neurosis.
    Ex: “I’m a toddler, but want to forget how unpleasant it was being a baby.”

    Section I-PR:
    PROCESSES IMPEDIMENTS

    IA-PR: ACTUALIZATION IMPEDIMENTS -- PROCESSES

    IA-PR1: Foundational impediments

    Examples from Nurturing & Bonding (#3).

    Children can be neglected and deprived of care.

    Ex: “Leave baby in the crib when he cries. Picking him up will just encourage him.”

    Or, children can be smothered and over-attended.

    Ex: “When my little girl can’t understand her homework, I give her the answers – so she won’t feel dumb.”

    IA-PR2: Physical world impediments

    Examples from Life Experience (#7).

    Children can be sheltered and over-protected.

    Ex: “I pay for everything, because I don’t want my kids to struggle like I did.”

    Or, children may be thrown out into the world before they are prepared to cope.

    Ex: “I take my little boy with me to see violent action films, because I want him to know what life’s really like.”

    IA-PR3: Socio-cultural impediments

    Examples from Acculturation (#14).

    Children can be restricted to a very narrow stratum of society.

    Ex: “We only expose our children to the best people.”

    Or, children may be immersed in a polyglot culture, where they never have an opportunity to establish their cultural identity.

    Ex: “Our children benefited from attending integrated schools. But the schools were so PC, she never learned the special achievements of her own ethnic group.”

    IA-PR4: Formal investigation impediments

    Examples from Planning & Orchestrating (#19).

    Children can live in chaotic surroundings, where they never know what to expect of the future.

    Ex: “Our family bounces like a pinball from one crisis to the next.”

    Or, children can live lives where every moment is planned ahead – and there is no room for spontaneity and impulse.

    Ex: “When our son began that high-achiever grade school, we bought him a little Yale sweatshirt – so he’d know what’s in store for him.”

    IA-PR5: Self-expression impediments

    Examples from Expressive Arts (#25).

    Children can grow up in a sterile, blighted environment – where nothing creative or expressive ever happens.

    Ex: “The only pictures in our house are on the wide-screen TV – where we watch four hours of sitcoms every night.”

    Children can be encouraged in their creativity – to the exclusion of practical concerns or objective facts.

    Ex: “Our son only cares for his music. Why should he bother with math – or even with manners and etiquette?”

    IA-PR6: Conscious development impediments

    Examples from Introspection (#28).

    Children can grow up in an environment where their inner world is ignored, disparaged, or criticized.

    Ex: “Feelings are for sissies. Keep them to yourself, if you don’t want to be embarrassed.”

    Or, children can live in a world where their every feeling and reaction is coddled and idealized.

    Ex: “When our little boy throws a tantrum, we try to placate him. It’s his way of telling us we’re not doing enough for him.”

    IA-PR7: Comprehensive impediments

    Examples from Holistic Experiences (#32).

    Children’s lives can be a series of random, unconnected, and meaningless occurrences.

    Ex: “We’ve got our own lives to live. Our children will have to shift for themselves.”

    Or, Holistic Experiences can consume a child’s entire attention – leaving no time for self-structured activities and spontaneous fun.

    Ex: “We plan every moment of our child’s day, with after-school clubs and weekend team sports – so none of her precious time will be wasted.”

    Section I-P:
    PARTICIPANT IMPEDIMENTS

    IA-P: ACTUALIZATION IMPEDIMENTS -- PARTICIPANTS

    Every Participant in the growth process has a corresponding set of Actualization Impediments – some typical examples of which are shown below:

    IA-P1: Experienced/Observed Impediments

    See Restoration Participant Impediments below (IR-D1/2a).

    IA-P2: Individual/Collective Impediments

    We may know our own mind, but never be able to function in groups.

    Ex: “I’ve always been a maverick, who did things in his own time in his own way. I never did well in team activities.”

    Or we may always follow the crowd, and never be able to speak up for ourselves.

    Ex: “I don’t seem to know what I want, unless I ask someone else’s opinion.”

    IA-P2a: Collective Impediments

    IA-P2b: Culture Impediments

    Our culture may be enmired in a particular Stage of development. (see also IA-D1/2e)

    Ex: “As a Greenie, I will suffer contempt and ostracism if I begin focusing on my own internal growth – rather than the health of the planet.”

    Or, we may attempt to jump from a lower to a much higher Stage without traversing the intervening levels.

    Ex: “When we replaced strongman Saddam, we thought we could move Iraq from a warlord culture straight into democratic capitalism.”

    IA-P3: Persona/Type Impediments

    IA-P3a: Gender Impediments

    We may rigidly limit ourselves to a traditional male or female role, without giving voice to our dual nature.

    Ex: “As a real man, I see no need to wallow in my emotions.”

    Or, we may become a bland mixture of both genders, without a strong identity in either.

    Ex: “As a New Male, I’m reluctant to assert my opinions – for fear I might offend some oppressed minority.”

    IA-P3b: Birth-Order Impediments

    We may indulge or exploit our Birth-Order position.

    Ex: “Since I was born Number One, I have the right to all the attention and obedience.”

    Or, we may attempt to deny or escape from our Birth-Order characteristics.

    Ex: “I shrink from my role as first-born, and always let my younger sister take the lead.”

    IA-P3c: Enneagram Impediments

    We may fail to recognize and live in accordance with our innate Enneagram Role.

    Ex: “I’m embarrassed at being an ambitious, competitive Achiever, and have always longed to be an idealistic Reformer.”

    Or, we may accept our Role, but fail to evolve within it.

    Ex: “I’m a principled, crusading Reformer, but I always alienate others because I’m rigid, hostile, and judgmental.”

    IA-P3d: Inter-Passage Impediments

    We may never build an adequate Persona for dealing with the external Realm of Real Life. (see D4 and IA-D4)

    Ex: “My Mom always remained a little girl, and just let Dad take care of everything practical for her.”

    Or, we may cling to that Persona, failing to return to the internal Realms of our True Self.

    Ex: “My Dad became very successful, he never found out what he really wanted from life.”

    IA-P4: Functional Impediments

    We may fail to develop some of the key Functions of Self.

    Ex: “When I was young, I was never programmed with proper habits. Now that I’m older, the simplest routines of cleanliness and order require conscious effort.”

    Or, having developed them, we may fail to apply them appropriately.

    Ex: “I have well-developed Defensive abilities – but I tend to create defenses when there is actually no threat against me.”

    IA-P6: Generational Impediments

    We may attempt to attach ourselves to a Generation that is not our own.

    Ex: “Even though I’m an X-Gen kid, I’ve always identified with Dylan and the Beatles. I feel like I was born out of time.”

    Or, we may identify with our own Generation so rigidly that we fail to appreciate or tolerate the other Generations that make up our society.

    Ex: “As a Bureaucratic, I’ve always followed order and done my duty. I can’t understand why the younger Generation is so rebellious and obsessed with ‘finding themselves.’”

    We may be members of an aborted Generation, and therefore confused or detached in our Generational identity. Or, we may be born in an era, or located in a region, where Generational identity has slid back into cyclic, non-progressive rhythms. (see IA-D1/2d for examples)

    IA-P7: Witness Impediments

    We may identify so thoroughly with our ego that we are totally out of touch with our True Self.

    Ex: “I’ve got a decent job, a healthy family, and Monday Night Football. What else is there?”

    Or, having experienced the ecstacies of the True Self, we may fail to develop the necessary functions of our ego.

    Ex: “I wish I could live on a mountaintop and contemplate eternity all the time. There’s no point to everyday life, if it’s all an illusion.”

    IR-P: RESTORATION IMPEDIMENTS -- PARTICIPANTS

    IR-P1: Experienced/Observed Impediments

    o IR-D1/2a: Transition Cycle impediments.

    As we found in our discussion Transition Cycle Impediments (IR-D1/2a), the Self can be distorted at any of the four phases of the Transition Cycle. The Self can be the victim of weak Bonding, Fixation, Disattachment, or Dissociation. In order to move on with the rest of our life, we may abandon that dysfunctional Self. However, it never goes away; it just goes into hiding. It remains buried deep in our psyche as a Subpersonality, or Shadow Self.

    Sub-personalities are non-integrated or distorted scraps of identity created by some phase of a faulty Transition Cycle (D1/2a). The Sub-personalities are, in their benign form, mini-identities that help us handle every-day life situations. Benign Sub-personalities might include the persuasive public-speaker, the persistent researcher, the hard-nosed negotiator, the affable jokester, and so forth.

    Ex: “I’m normally a quiet, retiring person. But when I get up in front of an audience, I’m suddenly transformed into a mesmerizing public speaker.”

    On the other hand, pernicious or malevolent Sub-personalities are subterranean creatures sometimes spawned when the Self fails to disidentify with a past Stage. Pathological Sub-personalities -- sometimes called inner saboteurs, shadow-selves, or Gremlins – might include the harsh inner critic, the devious underdog, the neglected child, etc. These Gremlins may ‘set up shop in [our] basement, where they sabotage further growth and development.’ [102]

    Ex: “Every time I try out for a job, my Inner Critic tells me I’ll never measure up – so I blow the interview.”

    The deprived or distorted Impediment Self must be resurrected and dissolved -- with the affected Stages re-experienced, and perhaps ‘re-grown’ -- so that unimpeded Actualization Growth may resume. (see IR-D1/2a)

    Section I-T:
    TOGETHER-NESS IMPEDIMENTS

    IA-T: ACTUALIZATION IMPEDIMENTS – TOGETHER-NESS

    Every Guidance/Orchestration Mode in the growth process has a corresponding set of Actualization Impediments – some typical examples of which are shown below:

    IA-T1: Parental Impediments

    Just as Parents are our greatest source of growth, they are also our greatest potential source of Impediments. (see also IR-T1) Such Impediments may be of innumerable types. Parents may be neglectful, or too permissive, or even ignorant of basic modes of child-rearing.

    Ex: “My parents gave me a comfortable home, but they never offered much guidance on what to expect from life.”

    Or, they may be overly protective, or authoritarian, or opinionated and meddlesome. Ex: “My parents always used me as a laboratory

    for trying out their new ideas on child-rearing.”

    IA-T2: Societal/Cultural impediments

    If we remain isolated and aloof, our society may have too little opportunity to exert its beneficial influence.

    Ex: “I never made friends easily, and spent much of my childhood playing by myself.”

    Or, if we become enmeshed in that society, we may just follow the herd, and never learn to think for ourselves.

    Ex: “When I was young, I joined every social group I could think of – teams, clubs, cliques. I was real popular, but never got in touch with my own preferences.’

    Alternatively, we may come under the influence of corrupt or degenerate social groups – thereby undermining our good parental upbringing.

    Ex: “When I got to high school, I started running with a really bad crowd. I’m still repairing the damage I did to myself.”

    IA-T3: Holistic Growth Situation Impediments

    We may never be encouraged to participate in Holistic Growth Situations, like team sports or school drama.

    Ex: “I always wish I’d been encouraged to try out for school plays. I’d have learned to open up, to express myself more, and to work better in groups.”

    Or, our whole life may be structured around such activities – allowing little opportunity for creative play and independent exploration.

    Ex: “ We’ve spent so much time with school sports, school drama, student government, and organizing dances that our private life has just about vanished.”

    IA-T4: Growth Center Impediments

    Although we may never visit an Esalen or a Meditation Center, virtually all of us have extensive experience with at least one type of Growth Center – the school. While attending a school, we may limit ourselves to academics – thereby depriving ourselves from close friendships and engaging social activities. Ex: “In high school, I was an outstanding student – but missed out on team sports, school plays, and some really interesting service projects.”

    Or, we may neglect our studies, and spend all our time with friends and group activities.

    Ex: “When I went to college, the halter was off, and I ran wild. With all the parties and fun, my school work suffered, and I flunked out.”

    Alternatively, we may be enrolled at a school that lacks good academics altogether – or has a disruptive or blighted social environment.

    Ex: “My classroom is so chaotic, the teacher has to spend all her time keeping loud kids under control – so we never learn anything.”

    IA-T5: Authority Impediments

    We may be so headstrong and independent that we eschew any form of Authority.

    Ex: “I think for myself. What do a bunch of dead, while males have to teach e?”

    Or, we may be so reliant on the Authority of others that we never develop our own opinions.

    Ex: “Our doctrine teaches us to follow unquestioningly – so I just try to follow its dictates.”

    Alternatively, we may follow Authorities who are misguided, or who intentionally exploit and abuse their position of leadership.

    Ex: “I always followed the teachings of Rajneesh – until I realized he was just accumulating money for his next Rolls Royce.”

    IA-T6: Partner Impediments

    Aside from Parental influence, the great determinant of our growth is often our long-term partner. Therefore, our choice of partner, and our relationship with that person, is often a major source of Impediments. We may choose a partner who does not understand us. Or, we may choose one so similar to us that they have very little new to offer.

    Ex: “My wife and I are so different that we have nothing in common. My best friend and his wife are like peas in a pod – but they never change much.”

    We may choose a partner who does not care for us deeply. Or, we may choose one who becomes so enmeshed in our personality that we fuse identities.

    Ex: “My husband married me for my looks, but doesn’t really love me for my insides. My sister and her husband get so entangled in their infatuation for one another, they seldom know their own identities.”

    Alternatively, we may never develop a long-term relationship at all – or the relationship may be prematurely terminated by divorce or death.

    Ex: “I never did find the right girl -- and by now I’m pretty much accustomed to bachelorhood.”

    IA-T7: Therapist Impediments

    We may choose a Therapist who is not qualified to deal with our particular set of problems.

    Ex: “My therapist didn’t know how to heal our relationship, so he just let us fight – hoping we would work our way through it.”

    Or, we may choose a highly-qualified Therapist who is domineering, opinionated, and jealous of our attention.

    Ex: “I’ve been seeing a really good therapist – but he interprets every question or objection as a sign of disloyalty.”

    Alternatively, we may never turn to a Therapist at all – even when we have serious problems.

    Ex: “I don’t really have any serious problems – and even if I did, I’m not letting any nosy shrink get inside my head.”

    IA-T8: Spiritual Guide Impediments

    We may choose a Spiritual Guide who has very limited experience with authentic spiritual States.

    Ex: “My yoga class is really just stretching exercises and a social hour.”

    Or, we may choose a Guide who is very advanced at spiritual practices – but exhibits very immature, self-aggrandizing, exploitive, or possessive behavior in his personal life.

    Ex: “Jimmy Swaggart had a genuine message from above – but he dragged God’s name through the mud with his sexual escapades.”

    Alternatively, we may confine our lives to material concerns – and never explore the higher realms of our consciousness.

    Ex: “As long as I’m rich, successful, and healthy, I really don’t need a preacher or a guru to tell me what to do.”

    IA-T9: Growth Professional Impediments

    We may choose Growth Professionals who are only proficient in their field of specialization.

    Ex: “My doctor knows a lot about common illnesses – but almost nothing about preventive medicine, or about improving health by a change in lifestyle.”

    Alternatively, we may choose our Guides based primarily on their degrees and certifications – without adequate regard for their range of experience or their effectiveness as counselors.

    Ex: “I’m only interested in real doctors with real medical degrees – even though everything they’ve tried just seems to make my condition worse.”

    IA-T10: Integral Counselor Impediments

    We may choose an Integral Counselor with only superficial knowledge of the Integral approach.

    Ex: “My coach recites buzzwords like Integral, or Spiral Dynamics, or Gestalt – but is just using them as a sales pitch for some really simplistic counseling.”

    Or, we may choose one who understands the Integral perspective thoroughly, but is not proficient as a counselor.

    Ex: “My counselor knows AQAL backwards and forwards, but has no real gift for relating to people.”

    Alternatively, we may limit ourselves to Therapists and Growth Professionals with very specialized approaches – never coordinating or integrating the various strands of our growth.

    “I take literature classes at the JC, yoga sessions at the club, see a family therapist for our relationship, and meditate as the local ashram. I keep busy playing one approach against another, but I never really have to grow.”

    IA-T11: Internal Navigator Impediments

    We may drift from one Guide or Counselor to another – never developing our own convictions or our own internal guidance system.

    Ex: “As the mood strikes me, I’ve drifted from one therapy or spiritual practice to another – abandoning each program when it gets too uncomfortable or too challenging.”

    Or, we may detach ourselves from guidance prematurely – before we have internalized the valuable lessons to be learned from good counselors.

    Ex: “I tried therapy once, and it didn’t work. From now on, I’m taking care of my own problems.”

    IA-T12: Witness Impediments

    We may concentrate so much on spiritual enlightenment that we neglect the potential satisfactions of everyday life.

    Ex: “I get so much satisfaction from the cosmic perspective of meditation, that I’ve lost interest in the particulars of everyday life.”

    Or, we may limit ourselves to material pleasures – never tasting the joys of enlightenment.

    Ex: “I get my kicks from beating my buddies at golf, and betting on the ponies. What else is there to do on a Sunday afternoon?”

    IR-T: RESTORATION IMPEDIMENTS -- TOGETHER-NESS

    There are relatively few types of Restoration Together-ness Impediments – but those that exist are especially pernicious and tenacious. Each such Impediment may have a variety of Resolutions – the most prominent of which include Confronting, Resurrecting, Reexperiencing, and Reintegrating (see DI).

    IR-T1: Parental Impediments

    Since Parents are involved with their children from the earliest, most impressionable years – and in the most intimate of situations – they are a major source of Restoration Impediments.

    IR-D1/2a: Transition Cycle impediments.

    Parents can be a major source of malfunction in the Transition Cycle (D1/2a). Through parental influence or parental involvement, a child may have weak identification with a given Stage, may cling to a past Stage, may fail to identify strongly with the subsequent Stage, or may dissociate from the prior Stage. (see IR-D1/2a for examples)

    Table of Contents

    Appendix D:
    RESOURCES FOR STUDY

    There is a growing body of literature describing and explaining every aspect of the AQAL and ADAPT models. Some of the best such resources in shown below. Items within categories listed roughly in order of importance to this study. Abbreviations used in the text are shown in [brackets]. Additional ADAPT categories to which an entry applies are shown in (parentheses).

    Articles by Hugh & Kaye Martin

    Published articles:

    • Arrays of Light: Ken Wilber's Tables of Correspondence [Arrays]. IntegralWorld.net, February 2007.
    • The Human Growth Continuum: The Nine Dimensions of Personal Development [Dimensions]. IntegralWorld.net, May 2007.
    • The Processes of Human Development [Processes]: The 33 Fundamental Methods by which People Grow. IntegralWorld.net, May 2007.
    • AQAL, The Next Generation?: How ADAPT Points the Way to a Major Revision of Ken Wilber’s Model of Human Development [NextGen], December 2007.

    The ADAPT Quartet:

    • Exploring the Growth Continuum: The Eight Dimensions of Personal Development [Dimensions 2]. IntegralWorld.net. [75% complete, January 2008]. (See prior version above.)
    • Ships to Exotic Ports of Call: The 33 Fundamental Processes by Which People Grow [Processes 2]. [75% complete, January 2008]. (See prior version above.)
    • Voyagers on the Sea of Time: The Seven Major Participants in the Human Growth Process [Participants]. [25% complete, January 2008].
    • Guides to the Great Beyond: The 12 Modes of Orchestration that Weave the Strands of Our Growth. [25% complete, January 2008]

    Other articles in preparation:

    • The Fundamental Ken Wilber (Integral Psychology) [Fundamental Wilber IP]: A Topical Anthology. [90% complete January 2008].
    • The Fundamental Ken Wilber (covering all other Wilber works pertaining to human growth) [Fundamental Wilber]: A Topical Anthology [25% complete January 2008]. (See prior version above. See also list of Wilber works pertaining to human growth, below.)
    • The Processes According to Esalen [Esalen]. [80% complete January 2008].
    • Voices from the Family Constellation: The Processes in Real Life [Real Life]. [60% complete, January 2008].

    Ken Wilber

    One of the most insightful and comprehensive thinkers of our time. Hip and accessible. A major inspiration for this study.

    Ten of Wilber’s books focus extensively on the subject of human growth.

    • Integral Spirituality [IS]: A Startling New Role of Religion in the Modern World. Boston, MA (2006): Shambala Publications.
      Formulates a theory of spirituality that honors the truths of modernity and postmodernity, while incorporating the essential insights of the great religions.
    • Integral Psychology [IP] – Consciousness, Spirit, Psychology, Therapy. Boston, MA (1999, 2000): Shambala Publications.
      Wilber’s major published work on psychology.
    • One Taste: The Journals of Ken Wilber [OT]. Boston, MA (1999): Shambala Publications.
      Intriguing glimpses into Wilber’s personal life through his journals.
    • A Brief History of Everything [BHE]. Boston, MA (1996): Shambala Publications.
      The best casual introduction to Wilber’s system of thought.
    • Sex, Ecology, Spirituality: The Spirit of Evolution [SES]. Boston, MA (1995): Shambala Publications.
      The beginnings of a Wilber magnum opus.
    • Wilber, Ken 1995. The Eye of Spirit [ES]: An Integral Vision for a World Gone Slightly Mad. Boston, MA: Shambala Publications.
      Applies Wilber’s Spectrum of Consciousness model to diverse and important fields – psychology, spirituality, anthropology, cultural studies, art & literary theory, ecology, feminism, and planetary transformation.
    • Transformations of Consciousness [TC]: Conventional and Contemplative Perspectives on Development, with Jack Engler and Daniel P. Brown. Boston, MA (1986): Shambala Publications.
      Wilber sections are duplicated and expanded in IP.
    • Up From Eden [UE]: A Transpersonal View of Human Evolution. Garden City, NY (1981): Anchor Press/Doubleday.
      Important application of the growth process to Culture Passages. Companion to AP.
    • The Atman Project [AP]: A Transpersonal View of Human Development. Wheaton, IL (1980): A Quest Book/Theosophical Publishing House.
      Important study of the individual search for identity. Companion to UE.
    • No Boundary [NB]: Eastern and Western Approaches to Personal Growth. Los Angeles, CA (1979): Center Publications.
      Early study of the growth process.

    Other valuable Wilber resources:

      Wilber, Ken 2006. Integral Life Practice Starter Kit. Louisville, CO: Sounds True Publications.
      Structured, easy-to-follow introduction to the major modules of ILP – consisting of 5 DVDs, 2 CDs, and 3 booklets. Expensive for what you get, but much cheaper than a series of Integral Institute workshops.

      Integral Institute [II]. [103] 866-603-9456. www.IntegralInstitute.org.
      The Place to go for official, endorsed-by-Wilber Integral programs of all sorts. Basic membership level allows access to Integral Naked recorded interviews, Integral Spiritual Center, Holons Newsletter, I-I Forums, and AQAL Journal.

    Integral Studies

    • Visser, Frank 2003. Ken Wilber – Thought as Passion [TP]. Albany, NY: SUNY Press.
      Excellent and readable guide to Wilber’s life and work.
    • Reynolds, Brad 2004. Embracing Reality [ER] – The Integral Vision of Ken Wilber. New York, NY: Tarcher/ Penguin.
      Thorough and faithful summaries of Wilber’s works.
    • Reynolds, Brad 2006. Where’s Wilber At? [WWA] – Ken Wilber’s Integral Vision in the New Millenium. St. Paul, MN: Paragon House.
      Further explorations of Wilber’s major concepts, and a report on developments in the Integral movement.

    Integral Articles

    Articles from Wilber’s AQAL journal which pertain to ADAPT’s Parameters. See www.integralinstitute.org.

    Volume 1; Issue 2:

    • Elliot Ingersol, “An Introduction To Integral Psychology” (pp. 131-143).
    • Suzanne Cook-Greuter, “20th Century Background For Integral Psychology” (pp. 144-184).
    • Bert Parlee, “Integral Psychology: An Introduction” (pp. 185 - 200).
    • Paul Landraites, “Jane: An Integral Psychotherapeutic Case Study” (pp. 201 - 236).

    Volume 2; Issue 1:

    • David Zeither, “Integral Psychology: Clinical Applications” (pp. 60 - 73).
    • David Zeither, “An AQAL Case Study Of Short-Term Psychotherapy As Transformation” (pp. 74 - 96).

    DIMENSIONS

    Life Passages

    • Levinson, Daniel J. 1978. The Seasons of a Man’s Life. New York, NY: Alfred A Knopf. (Life, Culture, Participants)
      The reigning queen of Life Passage studies.
    • Sheehy, Gail 1995. New Passages – Mapping Your Life Across Time. New York, NY: Random House. (Life, Culture, Participants)
      Landmark study and source for Sheehy’s studies of Life Passages.

    Psyche Passages

    • Erikson, Erik 1950. Childhood and Society. New York, NY: Norton. (Life, Psyche, Culture)
      Classic psychoanalytic study on the development of character.
    • Maslow, Abraham H. 1968. Toward a Psychology of Being. New York, NY: Wiley (Life, Psyche)
      Famous and influential exploration of the hierarchy of human needs. (Psyche, Life)
    • Piaget, Jean and Barbel Inhelder 1958. The Growth of Logical Thinking from Childhood to Adolescence: An Essay on the Construction of Formal Operational Structures. New York, NY: Basic Books.
      The classic research on the development of logical intelligence. (Psyche – Cognitive)

    Body Passages

    • Easley, Norman 2006. Naturopathic Medicine. Santa Rosa, CA: Unpublished manuscript. (Chakras, Body)
      The most thoroughly-investigated study of the connection between bodily processes and psycho-spiritual health.
    • Brennan, Barbara Ann 1998. Hands of Light – A Guide to Healing Through the Human Energy Field. New York, NY: Bantam Books. (Body, Spirit)
      Remarkable delineation of the Subtle Bodies from a hands-on bioenergetic practitioner with extraordinary sensitivities to non-material phenomena.

    Spirit Passages

    • Wilber, Ken (2006). Integral Spirituality. See above.
    • Myss, Caroline 1996. Anatomy of the Spirit: The Seven Stages of Power and Healing. New York, NY: Harmony Books. (Spirit, Psyche)
      Sensitive exploration of the spiritual energy centers from the perspective of Christian sacraments and the Hebrew Kaballah.

    Culture Passages

    • Beck, Don Edward & Christopher C. Cowan 1996. Spiral Dynamics – Mastering Values, Leadership, and Change. Malden, MA: Blackwell Publishing. (Culture)
      Sophisticated and illuminating explication of Culture Passages and developmental levels in general.
    • Howe, Neil and William Strauss 1991. Generations – The History of America’s Future, 1584 to 2069. New York, NY: Wm. Morrow. (Culture, Generations)
      Masterwork on the four-stage cycle by which cultures evolve.

    Internal Passages & Chakras

    • Judith, Anodea 1996. Eastern Body, Western Mind – Psychology and the Chakra System. Berkeley, CA: Celestial Arts. (Internal Passages, Chakras, Participants)
      Comprehensive and insightful exposition of the Chakras at all three levels.

    PARTICIPANTS

    • Riso, Don Richard & Russ Hudson 1999. The Wisdom of the Enneagram – The Complete Guide to Psychological and Spiritual Growth for the Nine Personality Types. New York, NY: Bantam Books. (Roles, Enneagram)
      Clearest discussion of the Enneagram types and their potential for personal evolution.
    • Almaas, A.H. (1998). Facets of Unity – the Enneagram of Holy Ideas. Berkeley, CA: Diamond Books. (Roles, Enneagram, Spirit)
      Profound exploration of Enneagram Types as fixations which disconnect us from higher spiritual truths.
    • Kegan, Robert 1982. The Evolving Self – Problem and Process in Human Development. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press (Self).
      Landmark work on human development from a Western academic perspective.
    • Rowan, John 1990. Subpersonalities – the People Inside Us. New York, NY: Routledge. (Subpersonalities, Impediments)
      Intriguing study of the characters and demons that populate our interiors.
    • Leman, Kevin (1985, 2004). The Birth Order Book: Why You Are the Way You Are. Grand Rapids, MI: Revell Books. (Birth-Order Types)

    PROCESSES & ORCHESTRATION

    Overviews

    • Murphy, Michael 1992. The Future of the Body – Explorations into the Further Evolution of Human Nature. Los Angeles, CA: Jeremy Tarcher. (Body, Processes).
      Scientifically sophisticated survey and investigation of a huge range of Processes and Modalities. By the co-founder of Esalen. Murphy and Wilber have been close friends and major influences on each of other, especially regarding Processes.

    Sociological analysis

    • Ray, Paul H. and Sherry Ruth Anderson 2000. The Cultural Creatives – How 50 Million People Are Changing the World. New York, NY: Harmony/Random House.
      Valuable survey of the exciting transformation at work in today’s culture. Includes chapter on the human potential movement (pp. 169-204). (Psyche, Culture)
    • Ardagh, Arjuna 2005, The Translucent Revolution – How People Just Like You Are Waking Up and Changing the World. Novato, CA: New World Library.
      Excellent survey of the spiritual transformation that is accompanying our culture’s psychological changes. Companion to Ray’s work.

    Surveys and compendia of therapies

    • Corsini, Raymond J. and Danny Wedding 2007. Current Psychotherapies. Wadsworth Publishing.
      Excellent introductions to a wide selection of the over-400 psychotherapies popular today. Companion book of case histories.
    • Corsini, Raymond J. 2001. Handbook of Innovative Therapy. Wiley.
      Textbook and manual covering a large variety of innovative and esoteric therapies: natural high, provocative therapist, covert conditioning, mindbody communication, imaginal cognition, deep psychobiology, eidetic therapy, provocative therapy, intensive marathon, primal therapy, etc.
    • Schneider, Kirk J., James F. T. Bugental , and J. Fraser Pierson, eds. 2002. The Handbook of Humanistic Psychology: Leading Edges in Theory, Research, and Practice. Sage Publications.
      Essays and studies on therapies, philosophies, and research that do justice to the highest reaches of human achievement and potential: personal construct psychotherapy, transpersonal psychology, credulous approach, peace psychology, organizational development theory, inner experiencing, constructivist therapy, Abraham Maslow, Rollo May, etc.
    • Corey, Gerald 2005. Theory & Practice of Counseling & Psychotherapy (7th ed.). Thompson: Brooks/Cole.
      Introduces students to the major theories of counseling (psychoanalytic, Adlerian, existential, person-centered, Gestalt, reality, behavior, cognitive-behavior, family systems, feminist, and postmodern approaches, etc.) and demonstrates how each theory can be applied to one particular case.
    • Gurman, Alan S. and Stanley B. Messer 2003. Essential Psychotherapies (2nd ed.)
      Overview of core approaches to treating individual and relational disorders. Brings order and reason to the literally hundreds of specific techniques espoused in the literature.

    Specific Processes or Themes

    Body therapies:

    • Juhan, Dean 1987/1998. Job’s Body – A Handbook for Bodywork. Barrytown, NY: Barrytown, Ltd.
      Detailed theoretical and practical explanations of numerous bodywork modalities.

    Self-help

    • Leonard, George B. and Michael Murphy 1995. The Life We Are Given.
      Introduction to Integral Transformative Practice (ITP) -- a balanced and comprehensive long-term program for personal transformation. Murphy’s ITP and Wilber’s ILP have mutually influenced each other.
    • Walsh, Roger and Frances Vaughn 1999. Essential Spirituality: The 7 Central Practices to Awaken Heart and Mind. Wiley.
      Derives seven common practices from the world's major religions to create out a guidebook for contemporary spirituality.
    • Walsh, Roger and Frances Vaughn 1981, 1993. Paths Beyond Ego. Tarcher.
      Examines some of the major ideas, practices, goals, and experiences that underlie the spiritual traditions and the discipline of transpersonal psychology.
    • Corey, Gerald and Marianne S. Corey 2005. I Never Knew I Had a Choice: Explorations in Personal Growth (8th ed.). Wadsworth Publishing.
      Personal guidance for those seeking to grow.

    Informal histories

    • Anderson, Walter Truett 1983. The Upstart Spring: Esalen and the Human Potential Movement: The First Twenty Years Addison Wesley.
      A charming, gossipy multiple biography of the curious gurus who spawned Esalen. The best book to capture the flavor of the Esalen experience – particularly in its early days.
    • Kripal, Jeffrey J. 2007. Esalen: America and the Religion of No Religion. University of Chicago Press.
      Extensive historical account of Esalen Institute. Emphasizes its theories and socio-religious implications, rather than experiential Processes.

    Personal journeys

    • Schwartz, Tony 1995. What Really Matters: Searching for Wisdom in America. Bantam.
      This story of the author’s four-year, human-potential odyssey through many Processes of psychology and spirit. Includes chapter on Wilber.
    • Klein, Aaron and Cynthia 1979. Mind Trips: The Story of the Consciousness-Raising Movements. Doubleday.
      The story behind a number of popular growth or enlightenment movements: Transcendental Meditation, Kung Fu, Yoga, Hare Krishna, Martial Arts, Est, Esalen, Zen, Arica.

    Schools

      Colleges and graduate programs which teach Processes through alternative psychology and/or spiritual studies.

    • John F. Kennedy University, Pleasant Hill, California. 94523-4817. 800-696-5358, 925-969-3300. www.Jfku.edu. Offers important Integral Studies program.
    • Fielding Graduate Institute, 
2112 Santa Barbara Street,
Santa Barbara, CA 93105. 800-340-1099, 805-687-1099. www.Fielding.edu. Offer valuable Integral Coaching program.
    • California Institute for Integral Studies (CIIS), 
1453 Mission Street, 
San Francisco, CA 94103. 415-575-6100. www.CIIS.edu.
    • Naropa University, 2130 Arapahoe Ave., Boulder CO 80302. 303-444-0202. www.naropa.edu
    • Institute for Transpersonal Psychology (ITP), 1069 East Meadow Circle,
Palo Alto, CA, 94303. 650-493-4430. www.Itp.edu.
    • Saybrook Graduate School. 747 Front Street, 3rd Floor, San Francisco, CA 94111-1920. 800-825-4480. www.Saybrook.edu.

    Growth centers

      Places to experience a wide variety of Processes in idyllic settings.

      • Esalen Institute, 55000 Highway One, Big Sur, CA. 831-667-3000. www.Esalen.org.
        The grande dame of all human potential centers, and still reigning queen.
      • Omega Institute, 150 Lake Drive, Rhinebeck, NY 12572. 845-266-4444. www.Eomega.org
      • Hollyhock, Cortez Island, British Columbia, Canada. 800-933-6339. www.Hollyhock.ca.
      • Breitenbush Hot Springs
PO Box 578
Detroit, OR 97342. 503-854-3320. www.Breitenbush.com.
      • The Findhorn Foundation (and University),
The Park,
Findhorn Bay,
Moray IV36 3TZ,
Scotland, UK. +44 (0)1309 691620. www.Findhorn.org.


      Meditation centers

        A particular type of Growth Center, which concentrates on spiritual practices – the modern version of a monastery.

        Spirit Rock Meditation Center, P.O. Box 169, Woodacre, CA 94973. 415-488-0164. www.SpiritRock.org.

        Tassajara Zen Mountain Center, 39171 Tassajara Road, Carmel Valley, CA 93924. 415-865-1899. www.sfzc.org/Tassajara.

        Green Gulch Farm Zen Center, 1601 Shoreline Highway, Muir Beach, CA 94965. 415-383-3134. www.sfzc/ggf.

    Table of Contents

    Appendix E:
    GLOSSARY OF TERMS

    This Table displays all the key terms and concepts pertaining to the ADAPT model of human growth. Each term is defined and its first appearance in the text noted. The closest equivalent in Ken Wilber’s AQAL system is indicated in column 4. Further information on the nature and degree of correspondence (or Divergence) is shown in the footnotes of the ADAPT section and Tables A1-3. In the main text, these terms are Capitalized; the first appearance of each term is bolded.

    Term Definition First
    occurrence
    Wilber equivalent
    (closest)
    Actualization The process of bringing Human Potentialities into actuality. Resolving Actualization Impediments. 25  
    Actualization Cycle The four-Stage cycle by which Actualization can take place. Consists of Recognition, Engagement, Breakthrough, Integration, 25  
    Divergence The degree to which the ADAPT position on a given Parameter differs from Ken Wilber’s. 12 levels, ranging from substantial agreement to markedly differing positions. Intended to highly areas where Wilber’s position may need re-examination. (see Confidence) 1  
    Confidence The authors’ degree of certainty in the validity of the ADAPT position – ranging from 95% to 60%. Intended to highlight which ADAPT positions are the most secure (and vice versa). (see Divergence) 1  
    Actualization Growth Growth by realizing one’s Human Potential. The growth that takes place in basically healthy people, when they actualize qualities for which they have an innate potential. (See Restoration Growth. Also Impediments, Actualization) 25  
    ADAP2T Acronym for: All Dimensions, All Participants, All Processes, Together (simplified to ADAPT). 2 AQAL
    Agape Action through descent, compassion, love. The way women engage in Transformation. (see Agency, Communion, Eros) 33 Same
    Agency Action through ‘self-preservation.’ The way men engage in Translation. (see Communion, Eros, Agape) 33 Same
    AQAL Simplified acronym for: All Quadrants, All Levels, All Lines, All States, All Types. Also, shorthand for Wilber’s entire system of thought. 2 Same
    Archetypes Features of myths that are expressive of common or collective human needs, instincts, or potentials. (see Myths) 22 Same
    Arena growth Growth within particular Arenas of one’s life. May occur differentially within the various Arenas. (see Differential Growth) 21  
    Arenas The spheres of action, the realms of experience, the themes of development, or the aspects of personal evolution within each Realm in which growth takes place (see Lines, Studies, Issues) 20 Lines
    Assimilation The process of incorporating experience into one’s identity. Digestion, Metabolism. For instance, the process of converting temporary States into permanent Traits. 15 Metabolism
    Authorities People of exceptional knowledge and wisdom -- often preserved through books, art forms, and other media. Authorities on the growth process may include anyone whose work pertains to, sheds light on, or contributes to our growth. 39  
    Birth-order Types Differences in personality resulting from the order of birth within one’s family – especially first, last, and middle child. 33  
    Blight The condition of atrophy or stunting that occurs, if Limitations are allowed to persist too long. 44  
    Bonding Our affinity or connection to others. Important factor in the Transition Cycle. 118 Same
    Breakthrough Succeeding, winning, or prevailing. Mastering, surmounting, or otherwise resolving the challenge favorably. Phase Three of the Actualization Cycle. 25 Transformation
    Chakras (Eastern) Energy phenomena that manifest themselves simultaneously in all three internal Realms of Body, Psyche, and Spirit. 16 Same
    Chakras (Western) A consolidation, condensation, or simplification of the FDS into seven basic Stages. 16 Same
    Child-rearing The activity of bringing children to maturity through Parenting -- a process of Guidance and Orchestration. 26  
    Communion Action through ‘self-adaptation.’ The way women engage in Translation. (see Agency, Eros, Agape) 33 Same
    Confronting Recognizing, accepting, facing, owning up to any deep-seated problems. Phase Two of the Restoration Cycle. 26  
    Coordination growth Knitting together and harmonizing of all Dimensions of the Growth Continuum into a balanced, unified, consistent whole. (see Together-ness) 27 Integration
    Cyclic flow The growth process whereby we embrace, actualize, and integrate both Polarities and all intervening Stages – moving fluidly up and down the developmental column in a rhythmic ebb and flow 24  
    Developmental sequence A growth sequence consisting of alternating Stages and Transitions. (see Fundamental Developmental Sequence) 16 Stream
    Differential Growth The phenomenon of growing at differing rates in different Arenas or Realms – and being, as a result, more advanced in some areas than in others. 21  
    Differentiation The process by which the Self transcends a particular Stage -- by dis-identifying with it. Also, the process of splitting a concept or category into distinct components. 16 Same
    Dimensions The eight facets or types of growth in the Growth Continuum. 15 Parameters
    Directions The contrary paths or tracks growth may take – both ascending and descending, outward and inward. 23 Height/ depth. Evolution/ involution
    Disattachment Failing to establish a solid bond or commitment to a new Stage – thereby remaining alienated, fragmented, rootless, homeless, in limbo. Opposite of Re-identification. Stage 3 of Transition Cycle Impediments. 118 Same
    Discovery Periods when we encounter new situations and insights we must assimilate during our next Stage of development. (see Transition) 15 Transformation
    Dissociation Avoiding, denying, repressing, or disowning the Observed Self. Opposite of Integration. Stage 4 of Transition Cycle Impediments. 118 Same
    Domain Any of the four major components of growth – Dimensions, Processes, Participants, and Together-ness 14  
    Engagement Meeting, facing, or confronting the challenge offered by a particular growth opportunity. Phase 2 of the Actualization Cycle. 25  
    Enneagram A system for categorizing (‘typing’) Personae. (see Enneagram Role) 33 Same
    Enneagram Role, Contributing An Enneagram Role that supports or assists the Dominant Role. 33  
    Enneagram Role, Dominant The primary or defining Enneagram Role of one’s personality. 33  
    Enneagram Roles (Types) The nine major personality clusters defined by the Enneagram: Reformer, Helper, Achiever, Individualist, Investigator, Loyalist, Enthusiast, Challenger, and Peacemaker.[104] The fundamental Personae by which the Self manifests its public character. 33 Enneagram type
    Eros Action through ascent, creativity, lust. The way men engage in Transformation. (see Agency, Communion, Agape) 33 Same
    Essence One’s authentic nature or True Self. (see Inter-Passage growth) 34  
    Essence, immature One’s authentic nature or True Self, in an undeveloped state. (see Inter-Passage growth) 34  
    Essence, mature One’s authentic nature or True Self, in a fully-developed state. (see Inter-Passage growth) 34  
    Evolution The ascending arc of our life, where we evolve toward Achievement, Aliveness, Maturity, and Enlightenment. (see Involution) 24 Same
    Fallacy, Inverse Romantic The misconception of interpreting transcendent mystical States as low-level pathologies or primitive states. (see Pre-/Trans- Fallacy) 115 Pre-/Trans- Fallacy
    Fallacy, Pre-/Trans- A confusion between primitive and advanced Stages – where primitive, mythical Stages are interpreted as transcendent, or transcendent mystical States are viewed as low-level pathologies. Either the Romantic Fallacy or the Inverse Romantic Fallacy. 115 Same
    Fallacy, Romantic The misconception of interpreting primitive, mythical Stages as transcendent. The yearning for an earlier, more primitive, more innocent age – a return to Eden. (see Pre-/Trans- Fallacy) 115 Romantic worldview, Pre-/Trans- Fallacy
    FDS The Fundamental Developmental Sequence 16 Correlative structure
    Feature Any component of the ADAPT growth model. (see Parameter, Impediment) 1  
    Fixation Clinging to an old Stage, failing to Differentiate – remaining fixated, fused, embedded, arrested. Opposite of Differentiation. Stage 2 of Transition Cycle Impediments. 118 Same
    Fundamental Developmental Sequence (FDS) The entire series of alternating Stages and Transitions. The FDS for internal Passages consists of 38 distinct steps. 16 Correlative structure
    Generation A biological period of life, normally about 20-25 years, between the time one is born and the time one first procreates. 17  
    Generation cycle A four-phase cycle that occurs repeatedly in the growth of dynamic Cultures. The phases are Prophetic, Reactive, Civic, and Bureaucratic. 17  
    Generation growth The form of Collective Growth that occurs from one Generation to the next, and from one Generation Cycle to the next. 17  
    Generation, Bureaucratic The Generation that institutionalizes and standardizes what once was the Prophetic Vision. Phase 4 of the Generation Cycle. 17  
    Generation, Civic The Generation that fills out and implements the vision of the Prophetic Generation. Phase 3 of the Generation Cycle. 17  
    Generation, Prophetic The Generation that conceives a new cultural vision and a new impetus for change. Phase 1 of the Generation Cycle. 17  
    Generation, Reactive The Generation that reacts against or detaches from the dominance of the Prophetic Generation. Phase 2 of the Generation Cycle. 17  
    Generational self The aspect of Collective identity that participates in the Generation Cycle 35  
    Gremlins See Sub-Personalities (pernicious). 45 Sub-personalities
    Growth Actualizing all four Domains of the Growth Dynamic. Moving and progressing along the Growth Continuum. 15  
    Growth Center A Holistic Growth Situation where people of exceptional interests or abilities regarding a particular aspect of growth gather together for personal development. 38  
    Growth Continuum A field of Growth consisting of eight interwoven Dimensions. 15 Morphogenetic field
    Growth Dynamic Collective term for all four Domains of growth. 14  
    Growth Professional Practitioners from any profession that endeavors to help people grow – teachers, educators, social workers, social activists, religious authorities, even managers and bosses. 40  
    Growth Situation, Holistic A cluster of experiences that offers many opportunities for growth in a single integrated activity. (see Growth Center) 38  
    Growth, Human Potential See Actualization Growth. 25  
    Guidance The process of choosing and directing our activities through all the alternatives offered in the life journey. See Orchestration. 25 Integration
    Guidance Model An approach to growth for so-called ‘normal’ people, where growth is described as ‘experiences,’ ‘explorations,’ or ‘navigation’ in ‘human potential,’ ‘self-actualization,’ or ‘personal evolution.’ (see Wellness Model) 25  
    Guidance, Individual The guidance in the growth process we receive from Guides who we choose ourselves, and who work with us personally. 39  
    Guidance, Internal The Guidance we provide for ourselves. After absorbing and internalizing the modes of Guidance, we become progressively more independent, more self-sufficient, more self-regulating, more autonomous, more mature. 41  
    Guidance, Societal The guidance in the growth process we receive from the society and culture we grow up in. 37  
    Guide Any person (or an instructive life situation) that assists in implementing the Guidance process. One who helps knit together and integrate the various Domains and Parameters of growth. 37  
    Guide, Integral Life A Growth Professional who weaves ‘Together’ all the diverse strands of Dimensions, Participants, Processes, and Together-ness Modes that make up the growth process. 40  
    Identification A powerful feeling of affinity or common identity with some person, group, or aspect of Self. 16 Same
    ILP See Integral Life Practice. 2 Same
    Impasse Situations where the Actualization Cycle is stymied, obstructed, blocked, or stuck. Problems, hang-ups, dysfunctions. See Limitation. 44 Block
    Impediment Self A non-integrated or distorted scrap of identity created by some phase of a faulty Transition Cycle. (see Sub-Personality (pernicious)) 35 Sub-personality
    Impediments All the ways the growth process can go wrong. See Limitations and Impasses. 43 Pathologies
    Impediments, Actualization Overt difficulties or challenges faced by relatively healthy people, where they fail to achieve their Human Potential. Limitations. See Impediments, Restoration. 43  
    Impediments, Guidance See Impediments, Actualization 43  
    Impediments, Restoration Submerged or subconscious difficulties faced by people with ‘problems,’ often caused by malfunctions in the Transition Cycle. Impasses. 43 Pathology
    Impediments, Therapeutic See Impediments, Restoration 43 Pathology
    Inner Saboteur See Sub-Personality (pernicious). 45 Sub-Personality
    Integral Any concept or process that includes and integrates all the Parameters of ADAPT 2 Same (all parameters of AQAL)
    Integral Life Practice (ILP) Ken Wilber’s flagship program for implementing personal growth (primarily Actualization Growth). 2 Same
    Integral Operating System (IOS) Ken Wilber’s entire system of knowledge, adapted as a program for personal growth. 53 Same
    Integration Assimilating a Breakthrough or positive experience into one’s personality and self-image. Phase 4 of the Actualization Cycle. 25  
    Integration The consolidation of the new Experienced Self with the old Observed Self. Phase 4 of the Transition Cycle. 16 Same
    Internal navigator The inner Guide formed by becoming familiar with all the Parameters of the growth process, and by experiencing and internalizing all the modes of Guidance. 41  
    Inter-passage growth The trajectory the Self passes through -- from internal, to external, and back to internal. (see Persona, Pre-/Trans- Fallacy) 34 U-shaped pattern of development.
    Involution The descending arc of life, where we ‘involve’ toward Fulfillment, Grounding, Authenticity, and Compassion. (see Evolution) 24 Same
    IOS See Integral Operating System. 53 Same
    I-self See Self, Experienced. 31 Same
    Issues The topics or themes we address at each Stage of life and within each Arena. 21  
    Limitation Un-actualized Potential, or unrealized life opportunities, where Actualization fails to take place. Actualization Impediment. 44  
    Lines The categories of development or investigation within each Arena. 20 Same
    Medical Model See Therapeutic Model. 25  
    Me-self See Self, Observed. 31 Same
    Model of Self, Architecture The arrangement of one’s internal Realms – either as Archeology or as Retrofitting. 20 Architecture of Self
    Model,
    Multiple-Functionality
    Interior Architecture of Self where the Realms of Body, Psyche, and Spirit are added as additional modes of functionality – like the retrofitting of an old building. (see Model, Archeology) Also called Retrofit Model. 20  
    Model, Archeology Interior Architecture of Self where the Realms of Body, Psyche, and Spirit are stacked on one another, like layers of an archeological dig. Stacked Model. (see Multiple-Functionality Model) 61 Archeology of Self
    Model, Retrofit See Multiple-Functionality Model 20  
    Myths Epic stories that embody fundamental attributes of a culture. 22 Same
    Navigation See Guidance. 25 Navigation
    Orchestration The process of knitting together, coordinating, and unifying all the Domains that comprise the growth process. (see Together-ness and Guidance) 16 Integration
    Orientation, external A focus on the outward activities and features of life. 34  
    Orientation, internal A focus on the inward activities and features of life. 34  
    Parameter Any component of the growth model, either a Feature or an Impediment. 1 Same
    Parenting See Child-Rearing. 26  
    Participant Any of the seven elements of identity that takes part in the growth process. See Self System. 31 Self
    Participant, Individual A Participant in the growth process, experienced individually. (see Collective Participants) 31  
    Participants, Collective Every human group from two-person relationships, to families, to workgroups, to communities, to cultures. A Participant in the growth process, experienced collectively. (see Individual Participants) 31  
    Passages The four major sequences of human growth corresponding to the four Realms. 19  
    Passages, Body The internal phases of physical Enlivenment that occur as we awaken and connect the Energy Centers of our body. (see Realms) 19  
    Passages, Culture The sequence of growth followed by whole cultures. Similar to individuals, but spread over eons of time. 18  
    Passages, Life The external phases of accomplishment or Achievement that occur as we progress through the biological Life Cycle. 19 Horizontal translation
    Passages, Psyche The internal phases of mental Maturation that occur as we progress through the Stages of psychological Development. 19 Vertical transformation
    Passages, Spirit The internal phases of spiritual Awakening that occur as we ascend through the Stages and States of spiritual Development. 20 Vertical transformation
    Pathology See Restoration Impediment. 43 Same
    Peak experience A temporary Altered State. (see Trait) 18 Same
    Persona Our ‘public face’ -- the set of attributes and behaviors we construct to allow the Self to play a part in the drama of existence. A variety of Type. 32 Membership-Self, Rule/Role region
    Place-Based Learning Learning that arises not primarily from studying books and other media – but from a rich environment that is structured to yield many interrelated lessons. 38  
    Polarities The fundamental opposites of the universe – male and female, mind and body, spirit and flesh, symbol and meaning, yang and yin, etc. Related by attraction or oscillation. 23  
    Process Any of the 33 categories of techniques, therapies, practices, programs, activities, explorations, studies, and focused experiences that move us along the Growth Continuum. 28 Methodology
    Quadrant Growth The process of growth whereby we consider, attend to, and develop all four Quadrant perspectives. 22  
    Quadrants The four basic perspectives from which any growth experience can be interpreted – internal/individual (upper-left), internal/external (upper-right), internal/collective – i.e. cultural (lower-left); and external/collective – i.e. societal (lower-right). 22 Same
    Realm growth Growth that occurs within any of the four Realms. 19  
    Realms The four major spheres of human experience in which growth and development can occur – Life, Psyche, Body, and Spirit. 19 Realms, planes, domains, spheres, and axes
    Recognition Becoming aware that a significant opportunity for growth exists. Phase 1 of the Actualization Cycle. 25  
    Re-experiencing Reliving a past traumatic situation – revisiting it, bringing it to life, re-experiencing it through memory. Phase 3 of the Restoration Cycle. 26  
    Re-identification The Self begins to identify with the subsequent Stage of development. Phase 3 of the Transition Cycle. 16  
    Re-integrating Viewing a traumatic situation from a healthier, more mature perspective – reinterpreting it, placing it in context, replacing it with a healthier version of the original experience. Phase 4 of the Restoration Cycle. 26  
    Resolution Overcoming, surmounting, prevailing, mastering, or otherwise creating a positive outcome for any Impediment. 43 Treatment
    Restoration Cycle A four-phase cycle by which Restoration Growth can take place. Consists of: Resurrection, Confronting, Reexperiencing, and Reintegrating. 26 Fulcrum
    Restoration Growth The growth that takes place in resolving ‘problems’ -- so that normal growth may resume. Often takes place through a four-phase Restoration Cycle. (See Actualization Growth) 26 Therapy
    Resurrecting Becoming aware of the situation that created the Impediment – uncovering it, recollecting it, bringing it to the surface. Phase 1 of the Restoration Cycle. 26  
    Role See Persona. 32 Persona, Type
    Self The Individual Participant in the growth process. 31 Same
    Self System Collective term for the seven Participants in the growth process. 31  
    Self, Experienced The I-Self. The observing, subjective, inside Self that identifies with our current Stage of development. (see Self, Observed) 31 Proximate Self, self-sense
    Self, Functional One of the ten (or so) Selves that represent fundamental human abilities we may identify with while performing a particular function. Includes: Autonomic/ Instinctive, Programmed, Volitional, Identity, Defensive, Emotional, Creative, Rational, Navigational, and Assimilative/ Integrative. 35 Functional invariants
    Self, Immediate The Experienced and Observed Selves together. (see Self, Overall) 31 Overall Self
    Self, Observed The Me-Self. The detached, objective, outside Self. The Self from a prior Stage of development that we have transcended, or ceased to identify with. (see Self, Experienced) 31 Distal Self, self-system
    Self, Overall The Immediate Self, plus the Witness. 31  
    Shadow Self See Sub-Personality (pernicious). 45 Sub-Personality
    Spiral Dynamics The most popular and influential contemporary system of Culture Passages. 18 Same
    Spiritual guide A counselor, pastor, or master with the skills and experience to assist in navigating the higher realms of consciousness. 40 Same
    Stacked model See Model, Archeology. 61  
    Stage A level of development, maturity, enlivenment, or enlightenment through which we pass as we grow. (see Transition) 15 Stage, level, wave, sphere, nest, holistic pattern
    Stage growth Growth that occurs as we meet and master the challenges presented by a particular Stage of development. 15 Navigation
    States The four levels of spiritual experience: Nature mysticism (psychic), deity mysticism (subtle), formless mysticism (causal), and non-dual mysticism. Also, any internal condition of consciousness. 18 Same
    States, Altered "Non-normal" or a "nonordinary" states of consciousness -- including everything from drug-induced states, to near-death experiences, to meditative states. (see Natural States) 18 Same
    States, Natural The four normal or natural States of consciousness – waking/gross, dreaming/subtle, deep sleep/causal, and nondual. (see Altered States) 18 Same
    States, Permanent Sustained, lasting States of mind. Traits. (see Peak Experiences.) 18 Same
    Studies Scholarly investigations along a given Line and within a particular Arena. 21  
    Sub-personalities Positive: Benign mini-identities that manifest themselves in response to particular life situations. Negative: Pernicious or malevolent mini-identities spawned when the Self fails to disidentify with a past stage. (also called Shadow Selves, inner saboteurs, Gremlins) 45 Same
    Therapeutic Growth See Restoration Growth, Therapy. 26 Therapy
    Therapeutic Model An approach to growth for people with ‘problems’ -- where growth processes are described as ‘therapies’ or ‘treatments’ of ‘neuroses,’ ‘pathologies,’ or ‘mental illness’. (see Medical Model) 25  
    Therapist A professionally-qualified practitioner -- such as a psychologist, psychiatrist, or counselor – who is trained in helping people through Restoration Impediments. 40 Same
    Therapy The process of helping people through Restoration Impediments. 45 Same
    Together-ness The process of combining all Domains of growth into balanced, harmonious whole. (see Guidance and Orchestration) 37 Integration
    Traits Permanent features of one’s character or identity. (see Peak Experiences) 15 Same
    Transformation Times when we are becoming something we have never been before. (see Discovery, Translation) 15 Same
    Transition A quantum leap that takes us from one Stage to the next. (see Stages) 15 Translation
    Transition cycle The four-phase process through which Transition takes place. We first Identify with a given Stage, then Differentiate ourselves from that Stage, then Identify with the next subsequent Stage, and finally Integrate the new Identification with the old. 16 Fulcrum, milestone, round
    Translation Times when we are becoming better at activities we already know how to do. (see Transformation) 15 Same
    Type An identifiable cluster of personality characteristics that occur in numerous individuals. (see Persona) 32 Same
    Vector Growth Growth that emphasizes all four paths (Vectors) in our growth process. 23  
    Vectors The four fundamental paths of growth: Growth that combines Individual and Collective Participants with Internal and External Realms. 23  
    Wellness Model See Guidance Model. 25  
    Whole Life Counselor See Integral Life Guide. 40 Integral therapist, four-quadrant therapist
    Witness The all-pervasive Seer or I-I-Self. Our Essence, True Self, Transcendent Self, or True Nature. 36 Same. Ultimate subject, pure consciousness, antecedent self, emptiness

    Table of Contents

    Appendix F:
    THE ODYSSEY of HOMER

    The Odyssey of Homer is widely-recognized as the greatest literary metaphor for man’s journey through life. Like many epics, The Odyssey represents the Integral vision of its time. Although circumstances and interpretations have changed dramatically, the basic Domains and Parameters of the Integral visions have not. Thus, The Odyssey contains a remarkably complete array of the same Dimensions, Participants, Processes, and Modes of Together-ness found in ADAPT. For this reason, The Odyssey is an ideal source for vivid illustrations of ADAPT concepts.

    The following brief synopsis of The Odyssey is drawn from CliffNotes.com. Characters or situations that are referred to, or pertain to, our ADAPT discussion are bolded or [bracketed].

    After an invocation to the Muse of poetry, the epic begins in medias res (“in the middle of things”). [Life Passages:] Odysseus has been gone from Ithaca for about 20 years—the first ten spent fighting the Trojan War , the last ten trying to get home. Meanwhile, Odysseus’ wife, Penelope, tries to fend off over 100 suitors who have invaded the royal palace, seeking her hand in marriage (and a chance of ruling Ithaca), and indulging in great amounts of food and wine at the hosts’ expense. Telemachus, son of Odysseus and Penelope, is just coming of age (he is approximately 21) and is at a loss as to what to do about the suitors. Mother and son yearn for Odysseus’ return.

    The first four books deal with Telemachus’ struggle (in fact, Odysseus does not appear in the epic until Book 5). [Life Passages:] A secondary plot in The Odyssey is Telemachus’ coming of age, his own quest, which scholars sometimes refer to as the “Telemacheia.” The goddess Athena appears to the young prince in disguise and advises him to gather an assembly of the island’s leaders to protest the invasion of the suitors. Soon after, he is to visit King Nestor of Pylos and King Menelaus of Sparta, old comrades of his father’s, to gather from them any new of Odysseus. At the assembly, the two leading suitors —the aggressive Antinous and the smooth-talking Eurymachus—confront the prince. They accuse Penelope of delaying too long in her choice of a new husband. Telemachus speaks well but accomplishes little at the assembly because the suitors are from some of the strongest families in the area and are impatient with Penelope’s delays.

    As Telemachus secretly sets off for Pylos and Sparta, the suitors plot to assassinate him. At Pylos, Telemachus learns little of his father but is encouraged to visit Sparta where King Menelaus reports that Odysseus is alive but held captive by the goddess nymph Calypso.

    Homer leaves the story of Telemachus as the suitors are about to ambush his ship on its return to Ithaca. [Transition to Psyche Passages:] At Athena’s urging, the gods have decided to free Odysseus from Calypso. Hermes, the messenger god, delivers the order to Odysseus’ captor. Odysseus has spent seven years with the goddess, sleeping with her at night and pining for his home and family during the day. Calypso is a beautiful, lustful nymph who wants to marry Odysseus and grant him immortality, but he longs for Penelope and Ithaca. Reluctantly, Calypso sends Odysseus on his way. Poseidon, the sea god, spots the wayfarer and, seeking revenge because Odysseus blinded Poseidon’s son Cyclops, shipwrecks Odysseus on Phaeacia, which is ruled by King Alcinous. The Phaeacians, civilized and hospitable people, welcome the stranger and encourage him to tell of his adventures.

    Through Odysseus’ narration, the reader goes back 10 years and hears his tale. Known as “The Wanderings of Odysseus,” this section is the most famous of the epic. [Psyche/Spirit Passages:] At the end of the Trojan War, Odysseus and his men sail first to the land of the Cicones. The Greeks succeed in raiding the central city but linger too long and are routed by a reserve force. Hoping to sail directly home, the flotilla instead encounters a severe storm, brought on by Athena, that blows them far off course to the land of the Lotus-eaters. These are not hostile people, but eating the lotus plant removes memory and ambition; Odysseus is barely able to pull his men away and resume the journey. Curiosity compels Odysseus to explore the land of the Cyclops, a race of uncivilized, cannibalistic, one-eyed giants. One of them, Polyphemus (also known simply as “Cyclops”), traps Odysseus’ scouting party in his cave. To escape, Odysseus blinds the one-eyed monster, incurring the wrath of the giant’s father, Poseidon. Aeolus, the wind god, is initially a friendly host. He captures all adverse winds and bags them for Odysseus, who is thus able to sail within sight of Ithaca. Unfortunately, his men suspect that the bag holds treasure and open it while Odysseus sleeps. The troublesome winds blow the party back to Aeolus, who wants no more to do with them, speculating that they must be cursed by the gods. The next hosts, the cannibalistic Laestrygonians, sink all the ships but Odysseus’ in a surprise attack. The remaining Greeks reach Aeaea, home of the beautiful enchantress Circe, who turns several of them into pigs. With advice from Hermes, Odysseus cleverly defeats Circe and becomes her lover. [Body Passages/ Therapeutic Growth] She lifts the spell from his men and aids in the group’s eventual departure a year later, advising Odysseus that he must sail to the Land of the Dead. There, he receives various Greek heroes, a visit from his own mother, and an important prophecy from the seer Tiresias. Odysseus resumes his journey. Barely surviving the temptations of the Sirens’ songs and an attack by a six-headed monster named Scylla, Odysseus and his crew arrive at the island of the Sungod Helios. Despite severe warnings not to, the men feast on the cattle of the Sungod during Odysseus’ brief absence. Zeus is outraged and destroys the ship as the Greeks depart, killing all but Odysseus, who is washed ashore at Calypso’s island, where he stays until released seven years later.

    [Transition to Life Passages:] The story of his adventures finished, Odysseus receives the admiration and gifts of the Phaeacians who follow their tradition of returning wayfaring strangers to their homelands by sailing him to Ithaca.

    [Life Passages:] Meanwhile, Athena helps Telemachus avoid the suitors’ ambush and arranges for him to meet his father at their pig farm not far from the palace. Reunited with his son and with the assistance of Athena and his faithful swineherd Eumaeus, Odysseus returns to his home palace disguised as a beggar. For the time, he resists striking back at the suitors who insult and assault him. Penelope seems at least suspicious that he is her husband, but it is Eurycleia, a loyal nurse who cared for Odysseus when he was a child, who has no doubt of his identity as she discovers an old scar on his leg when she bathes him. Penelope arranges a contest, vowing to wed any man who can string the great bow of Odysseus and shoot an arrow through a dozen axes as he used to do. The suitors all fail; only Odysseus himself can perform the feat. With deft planning and more help from Athena, he and Telemachus and two faithful herdsmen slaughter the suitors. Odysseus and Penelope are reunited, as are Odysseus and his aging father, Laertes.

    [Integration of Psyche, Spirit, & Life Passages:] Athena makes peace with the suitors’ vengeful friends and families, avoiding civil war. Odysseus is home at last.

    Table of Contents

    Appendix G:
    CREDITS

    Thanks is gratefully given for permission to publish the following images.

    Title page. Integral Operating System, www.soundstrue.com.

    Preface. A Brief History of Everything, www.Shambala.com.

    Overview. Odysseus’ Ship, www.mythencyclopedia.com.
    Old Map Central America, www.putmap.com.

    How to Read This Study. Wilber Aura, www.zaadz.com.

    Overview of ADAPT. Voyages of Captain Cook, http/imagecache2.allposters.com
    Dimensions.
    Old Map of the World.

    • Stage growth. DNA Jellyfish, www.genomenewsnetwork.org.
    • Transition growth. Bay Bridge at Night, www.Thomashawk.com.
    • Developmental sequence. Butterfly Life Cycle, www.butterflyutopia.com.
      Spiral DNA, www.berkeley.edu.
      Chakra Lotus.
      Norman Rockwell, Freedom From Want, www.ArtArchive.com.
    • States growth. Sleeping Babe, www.SophieLuxjoyhog.com.
    • Realm growth. RealmKeepers, www.Photobucket.com
    • Arena growth. Gladiator, Dreamworks Studios
    • Vector and direction growth. Red Arrows in Formation, Bluelinecruises.co.uk
    • Actualization/Restoration growth. Personalities, www.WebRing.com.
    • Coordination growth. Gymnast, www.Photosport.com.

    Processes. Sailing Ship, www.newnetherland.org.

    • Foundational. Fetus12wks, Lennart Nilsen.
    • Physical world. Frog, DeviantArt.com.
    • Socio-cultural. GirlsDanceCircle, Denmark Dance.
    • Formal investigation. Mind Theater, podspider.com.
    • Self-expression. Van Gogh Self-portrait, Rijksmuseum.nl.
    • Conscious development. WeddingKids, FreeArt.net.
    • Comprehensive. Star Wheel, KiRaNiAya.

    Participants. Star Trek Crew, www.Britfilms.tv

    • Experienced/Observed Self. Himself Observed.
    • Individual/Collective Self. Whitewater, Oxeyes.org.uk.
    • Personae & Types. Laurel and Hardy, Way Out West, Hal Roach Studios.
    • Functional Self. Workforce.
    • Impediment Self. Aristophanes Warrior, www.mettawee.org.jpg
    • Witness. Guiding Spirit, www.eso-garden.com.

    Together-ness. Wilber and Dog, http.home.wxs.nl.

    Impediments & Resolutions. Great Wall, www.lehsd.k12.nj.us.
    Chess Move, artfiles.com.

    Toward a New Model.

    • How Journeys Go Wrong. Old Map of the Americas, www.murrayhudson.com.
    • Constructive comparisons. The Simple Feeling of Being, www.Shambala.com.
    • Re-examining Ken Wilber. Being Ken, www.IntegralWiki.net.
      Atlas the Titan, poesiadelmomento.com.
    • Building the Next IOS. Hitchhiker’s Guide to the Galaxy, Del Ray Publishing.
      Escape With Us, www.sorenlarsen.co.nz.

    Appendices:

    • ILP/Wilber Processes Tables. Wilber in Tanktop, http/in.integralinstitute.org.
      Integral Life Practice, www.FrozenTruth
      Integral Psychology (Slavic), www.Shambala.com.
    • Resources. Big Book, www.Sterin.com
    • Glossary. Mag Glass, www.Nyu.edu
    • Odyssey. Odysseus and the Sirens, www.mythencyclopedia.com.
    • Biography. Lotus Flowers, www.FalunGong.org.

    Table of Contents

    HUGH AND KAYE MARTIN
    Biographical Information

    HUGH MARTIN is listed in Who’s Who in the World. He has appeared on numerous talk shows, led seminars at many colleges and corporations, and spoken at numerous professional conferences and colloquia. Mr. Martin is president of the NASD-registered securities brokerage firm, Hugh Martin Securities, and of the SEC-registered investment advisory firm, Hugh Martin & Co. Hugh is also president and co-founder of the life planning and counseling firm, Whole Life Advisory.

    AMALIA KAYE MARTIN (‘Kaye’) is a gifted natural medicine practitioner and an instructor in nutrition and natural medicine at Baumann College, and a creative elementary school teacher. Kaye is a dedicated homemaker, a devoted mother, perceptive life coach, certified natural foods chef, and dynamic community organizer.

    HUGH AND KAYE. Hugh and Kaye are best qualified as integral practitioners and theorists because they have lead integral lives. Both have richly diverse backgrounds in a multitude of fields:

    • Personal transformation: Esalen, Group Process, Gestalt, Reichian, Bioenergetics, Rolfing, yoga, various religious and spiritual traditions.
    • Natural medicine and health: Homeopathy, chiropractic, acupuncture, organic nutrition, vibrational medicine. Terminal cancer survivor (Hugh). Expert practitioner in nutrition and natural medicine (Kaye)
    • Artistic and creative expression: Nature photographer, documentary videographer, poet, painter/sculptor (Hugh). Batik artist, home decorator (Kaye).
    • Education: Ghetto school teacher, college literature instructor, financial seminar leader, early-reading curriculum developer (Hugh). Nutrition/natural medicine instructor, home-school network developer and coordinator (Kaye).
    • Societal change: Civil rights, environmental issues, sustainability/permaculture.
    • Natural and cultural environments: Backpacking, mountain biking, exotic travel, home exchanging.
    • Academics: Hugh -- Swarthmore College (B.A.), University of Pennsylvania (M.A.), Indiana University (doctoral), UC Berkeley (credential), Coaches Training Institute (CTI), member of Mensa. Kaye -- Cal State Northridge (B.A.), Baumann College (natural medicine), Coaches Training Institute (CTI).
    • Marriage and family. Thirty years of happy, occasionally turbulent, marriage. Five highly-independent, multi-gifted kids with close family ties.

    WHOLE LIFE ADVISORY. Hugh and Kaye are the founders and co-directors of the life planning and counseling firm, Whole Life Advisory. Whole Life Advisory is a comprehensive program for personal and professional growth, which empowers clients to achieve success and fulfillment in 12 key arenas of life -- education, career, marriage, family, community, culture, health, finances, emotions, sexuality, recreation, and spirituality. For more information, please contact the authors at MartinHughCo@Gmail.com.


    REFERENCES

    [1] Ken Wilber’s abbreviated acronym for All Quadrants, All Levels, All Lines, All States, All Types. In our model, the first four of these parameters are Dimensions; the last is a Participant.

    [2] Wilber’s Integral Life Practice growth Program.

    [3] “On my tombstone, I really hope that someday they will write: He was true but partial..." Collected Works Of Ken Wilber, vol. VIII, Introduction, p. 49.

    [4] Just kiddin’, Ken! To stimulate interest and discussion, we sometimes use language that is intentionally provocative. This is a rhetorical device, and no offense is intended.

    [5] For illustrative and dramatic purposes, we have sometimes set ADAPT and AQAL (or ILP) against each other, as if in competition. In fact, the two models are valuable complementary endeavors striving toward a common goal of personal evolution. For further caveats and qualifications on our comparisons to Wilber’s model, please see Constructive Comparisons section, p. 49.

    [6] For the sake of simplicity, we simplify this acronym to ADAPT throughout this article

    [7] Collectively, we call these four Domains the Growth Dynamic.

    [8] The present article includes only a brief summary of ADAPT and other key concepts. For detailed explanations and illustrations, please consult our other articles in the Resources section. In particular, please review Arrays of Light, our detailed examination and reformatting of Ken Wilber’s Tables from Integral Psychology.

    [9] The Odyssey is widely-recognized as the greatest literary metaphor for man’s journey through life. Therefore, it’s an ideal way to illustrate each component of our human development model. To refresh your memory of the story, a brief synopsis is included in as Appendix F.

    [10] Embedding terminology from Kegan (1992). (See IP, p. 42-43.)

    [11] Strauss and Howe, Generations (1991). See Resources.

    [12] See Spiral Dynamics, Resources section. In their simplest form, the eight Stages of development are as follows (est. period of ascendance in parentheses): Survival band/ Instinctive (~200,000 BC); Tribe/ Magical-animistic (~50,000 BC); Strong-man/ Power-gods (~20,000 BC); Authority/ Absolutist-religious (~4000 BC); Strategic enterprise/ Individualistic-achiever (~1500 AD); Social network/ Relativistic (~1950 AD); Systematic process/ integrative (also ~1950 AD); Holistic organism/ global (~2000+ AD?).

    [13] The Experienced Body is the internal, Upper-Left ‘felt’ body – the physical ‘feeling’ that accompanies every emotion or other psychological event. The Observed Body is the external, Upper-Right body described by anatomy and physiology. Body Passages is concerned primarily with the Experienced Body (what Esalen calls ‘being in your body’).

    [14] See Myss (1996).

    [15] For a detailed example, see our companion article, Arrays of Light (posted on IntegralWorld.net) -- which is a reorganization of Wilber’s Tables by Arenas of emphasis and Lines of inquiry.

    [16] Throughout this study, for instance, note how an archaic Myth like The Odyssey can be used to illustrate the full spectrum of Integral development.

    [17] When growth Processes are applied to so-called ‘normal’ people, they are described in terms of the Wellness Model (or, Guidance Model) -- as ‘experiences,’ ‘explorations,’ or ‘navigation’ in ‘human potential,’ ‘self-actualization,’ or ‘personal evolution.’ When growth Processes are applied to people who are viewed as ‘having problems,’ they are described in terms of the Medical Model (or Therapeutic Model) -- as ‘therapies’ or ‘treatments’ of ‘neuroses,’ ‘pathologies,’ or ‘mental illness’.

    [18] See also P5 and PR6.

    [19] For a detailed explication of the 33 Processes, see our companion article, The Processes of Growth, posted on IntegralWorld.net. For a more detailed outline of correspondences between ILP’s Modules and ADAPT’s Processes, see Tables B1 and B2 in the Appendix.

    [20] xxx

    [21] We call this collection of Participants the Self System.

    [22] The Experienced and Observed Selves together constitute what we call the Immediate Self. The Immediate and Transcendent selves together comprise what we call the Overall Self.

    [23] From our perspective, a Persona is not Stage-specific, but can be manifested at any Stage of development to deal with life circumstances.

    [24] See Tenet 2 of Wilber’s Twenty Tenets, BHE, p. 313.

    [25] See SES, pp. 338-39.

    [26] Enneagram Roles are generally classified using the following numbers: #1) Reformer = Principled, idealistic crusader; #2) Helper = Caring, self-sacrificing supporter; #3) Achiever = Ambitious, adaptive competitor; #4) Individualist = Romantic, introspective artist; #5) Investigator = Intense, cerebral analyst; #6) Loyalist = Committed, security-oriented team-player; #7) Enthusiast = Busy, social bon-vivant; #8) Challenger = Powerful, dominating leader; #9) Peacemaker = Good-natured, easy-going, conciliator. (Derived in part from Wisdom of the Enneagram. See Resources.)

    The Enneagram Roles are examples of true horizontal equivalence – since each of the nine Roles exist on the same hierarchical level. That is, we do not grow from one Role to the next. However, there are indications that the Roles themselves do undergo Stage-like development. (For instance, see the nine levels of development for each Role in Wisdom of the Enneagram, pp. 106, 134, 161, 188, 216, 242, 270, 296, and 323.)

    [27] Wilber rightly criticizes the Pre-/Trans- Fallacy – the notion that spiritual Enlightenment is equivalent to a return to an idealized, womblike Eden of early childhood. In our model, the Self returns to an internal state that is radically matured from its original condition.

    [28] For a discussion of the Enneagram from the perspective of Essence, see Almaas, Facets of Unity in Resources section.

    [29] All the fathers were off fighting the Trojan War!

    [30] xxx

    [31] Wilber’s conception of the Processes has evolved over the years. His first extensive recommendations of growth techniques occurs at ends of each chapter in No Boundary (1979). In Integral Psychology (2000) he divides his recommendations between Restoration Processes, for people with serious pathologies – and Actualization Processes [our terms], for basically healthy people seeking to evolve. In Integral Spirituality (2006) he advocates an expanded array of Processes under the title Integral Life Practice (ILP). ILP seminars were first offered by Integral Institute in 2003, and are currently evolving into a complete program. The Integral Life Practice Starter Kit, an introductory self-help ILP program, came out in 2006. Integral Institute’s scholarly AQAL Journal, also launched 2006, includes several articles describing and extolling certain aspects of ILP. We will probably not know the full scope of ILP until Wilber’s book on the topic is released (current estimate, September 2008). Because of this limited and somewhat diffuse information, assessments of Wilber’s Processes are necessarily tentative and uncertain.

    [32] xxx

    [33] This is not surprising. Any theory that is broad enough to encompass all of reality is unlikely to be specific enough for the subtle application to real lives. Almost inevitably, it will require refinement and fine-tuning when applied to actual human beings.

    [34] We define Wilber’s positions primarily by his statements in Integral Psychology. For a detailed study of those positions, see our forthcoming study, The Fundamental Ken Wilber (Integral Psychology edition). For Wilber’s Processes, See Table B1, Integral Life Practice, as well as IS, pp. 201-10.

    [35] This percentage helps the reader assess how much weight or credibility to give to any proposed modification. For example, if ADAPT proposes a substantial modification in Parameter A (say, Divergence #7), and at the same time indicates a high level of confidence in the ADAPT position (say, 90%), that potential modification may deserve especially high attention. The highest confidence level we assign to any position is 95%, since one can rarely be ‘sure’ of anything.

    [36] Brad Reynolds, Embracing Reality, pp. 16-62 and Where’s Wilber At?, pp. 3-11 and throughout. See Resources section.

    [37] See the Preface of this study.

    [38] For simplicity, we merely describe the differences between the two positions, without any attempt to defend or justify either one. Comments are necessarily abbreviated and simplified. For details, see our articles listed in the Resources section.

    [39] This percentage helps the reader assess how much weight or credibility to give to any proposed modification. For example, if we propose a substantial revision in Feature A, and at the same time have substantial Confidence in ADAPT’s position on that Feature, that revision may deserve especially high attention. The highest Confidence level we assign to any position is 95%, since one can rarely be ‘sure’ of anything.

    [40] For details, see Biographical Background in Appendix.

    [41] Wilber’s ‘fulcrum’ consists of three phases: differentiation, identification, and integration (IP, p. 93. See also IP, pp. 35-36, 92-108, and BHE, p. 131.).

    [42] Note the left-hand column of all Wilber’s Tables in our Arrays. Note in particular Table 1A, the Fundamental Developmental Sequence – which we have transcribed directly from the left-hand reference column of Wilber’s Tables, adding a definition of each Step that corresponds (to the best of our understanding) to Wilber’s intent. See also the Fundamental Developmental Sequence section, page 5, of the Introduction to those Tables.

    [43] According to Wilber, there are five common definitions of ‘spirituality’: “(1) Spirituality involves the highest levels of any of the developmental lines. (2) Spirituality is the sum total of the highest levels of the developmental lines. (3) Spirituality is itself a separate developmental line. (4) Spirituality is an attitude (such as openness or love) that you can have at whatever stage you are at. (5) Spirituality basically involves peak experiences, not stages.” (IP, p. 129-35) We substitute the word States for Wilber’s ‘spirituality.’

    [44] ADAPT may not incorporate in Realms all implications of Wilber’s three ‘spheres.’

    [45] Wilber portrays our interior architecture as an ‘Archeology -- where the Realms of Body, Psyche, and Spirit are stacked on one another, like layers of an archeological dig. (See for example: IP, The Archeology of Spirit, pp. 89-114.) This distinction alters the whole strategy of personal growth or therapeutic treatment. With a layered or Stacked Model (Wilber’s) the Realms of Body, Mind, and Spirit are dealt with sequentially – because they succeed one another on the developmental ladder. With a Multiple-Functionality Model (ADAPT), all three Realms are addressed simultaneously at every Stage of development -- because they are structurally inseparable.

    [46] The huge assemblage of Wilber’s Tables in our study Arrays of Light contains only two sparsely-populated Tables for Life Passages and Body Passages. All the remaining Tables focus on psychological, spiritual, and socio-cultural development. In Arrays, compare the number of Studies in Tables 3 (Life Development) and 5 (Physical Development) with the great collection of investigations in Table groups 4 (Psychological Development), 6 (Spiritual Stages and States), and 2 (Spectrum of Consciousness).

    [47] Wilber largely ignores external Life Passages, relegating that Realm to the status of ‘horizontal translation.’ Regarding Yale professor Daniel Levinson’s influential The Seasons of a Man’s Life, for example, he comments, “Several stage conceptions, such as Levinson’s, deal with the ‘seasons’ of horizontal translation, not stages of vertical transformation” (IP 227). Neither Levinson nor his prolific popularizer, Gail Sheehey, rate even an index reference in Integral Psychology.

    [48] Wilber tends to assign the body to the Upper-Right Quadrant. See for instance Wilber’s comments on Michael Murphy’s The Future of the Body (SES, p. 579): “Murphy almost single-handedly has been representing the great importance of the Upper-Right quadrant in human transformation…” [underline ours] We would characterize Esalen’s attitude toward the body (not necessarily Murphy’s) as predominantly Upper-Left.

    [49] ADAPT may not incorporate in this all the implications of Wilber’s formulation. The cycle of Evolution and Involution is a highly-complex and esoteric subject covered at length in Wilber’s earlier works – especially The Atman Project (185-203), Up From Eden (299-313), and Eye of the Spirit (55-6, 62-3).

    [50] Wilber differentiates between the two forms of growth, not by explicitly naming them, but by assigning them to different sections of his studies. In Integral Psychology, for example, Restoration Growth is addressed on pp. 91-110 and Table 1A – while a Program for Actualization growth (primarily) is outlined on pp. 113-14 (although at this point still called ‘integral therapy’). For examples of Wilber’s two approaches, see Appendix B3 (Restoration) and Appendix B1-2 (Actualization) in this study.

    [51] See Constructive Comparisons section for caveats regarding the incompleteness of our information on ILP and Wilber’s Processes.

    [52] References to each of the entities of identity can be found, for example, in IP: Proximate/Distal, pp. 333-36; Witness, pp. 126-27; Personae, Enneagram Roles, and other Types, pp. 53-54; Gender, pp. 120-21; Functional Self, pp. 37-7, 226; Sub-Personalities, pp. 100-02. Generational identity is not covered by Wilber, but is to be found in Strauss & Howe, Generations (see Resources).

    [53] In discussing Collective Participants, Wilber’s emphasis is almost exclusively on Cultures. See IP 145-49, 154-55.

    [54] As Wilber points out (IP 53-4), the Enneagram Roles are examples of true horizontal equivalence – since each of the nine Roles exist on the same hierarchical level.

    [55] From our perspective, a Persona is not Stage-specific, but can be manifested at any Stage of development to deal with real-life circumstances. Wilber uses Persona in a more restricted sense, to refer specifically to the Membership-Self (conformist Role-Self) or to the Rule/Role region of his ‘correlative structures’ (steps 12-18 in the FDS). (see IP 91, 126, 240-41, and 198 self-sense column)

    [56] Wilber particularly notes this phenomenon as it pertains to the spiritual Realm (IP 126, 141-42, 266) – but it also pertains to the other two internal Passages as well.

    [57] Wilber’s ‘functional invariants’ of the Self comprises a similar list of up to seven entities: metabolism, tension regulation, defenses, will, intersubjectivity, identity, cognition, navigation, and integration (IP 36-37, 226).

    [58] Wilber’s model integrates human experience beautifully at a conceptual level. However, at a deep experiential level, Wilber gives little indication how disparate growth experiences will be integrated into a balanced, harmonious whole. His outline of ILP suggests that the exercises themselves may provide some degree of unification. Beyond this, three articles in Wilber’s AQAL Journal suggest that therapists from Integral Psychology Center and Integral Psychiatry Centers (both divisions of Integral Institute), and perhaps spiritual teachers from Integral Spiritual Center, might serve this function. Both Short (pp. 110 and 125) and Ingersoll (pp. 132, 133, 142) specifically extol the services of these II organizations. Ingersoll and Cook-Greuter are co-directors of II’s Integral Psychology Center. See Resources section, Articles.

    [59] Integral Spirituality sometimes reads almost like marketing brochure for Integral Institute (II). The services of II and its divisions are extolled at least 18 times in the text, and web addresses are offered at least 9 times. Likewise, some AQAL Journal articles read like pitches for II’s therapy and counseling services. II and its divisions do have some great offerings, and they deserve to be promoted vigorously. However, the reader of any book or scholarly journal that purports objectivity should at least be offered some alternative venues.

    [60] Comparing Impediments between ADAPT and Wilber. Comparisons between ADAPT and Wilber generally carry over from the Features (in the ADAPT section of main text) to the Impediments (in the Impediments appendix). That is, where ADAPT and Wilber agree regarding a particular Feature, they also agree on the corresponding Impediment. Likewise, where a particular ADAPT Feature is not mentioned in Wilber, the Impediment to that Feature is not mentioned either. In the same manner, where ADAPT and Wilber diverge in their interpretation of a given Feature, they diverge in the same way regarding the corresponding Impediment. To avoid unnecessary repetition, we list in this section only Impediments where comparisons between ADAPT and Wilber differ from the normal correspondence in some notable way.

    [61] This percentage helps the reader assess how much weight or credibility to give to any proposed modification. For example, if we propose a substantial revision in Parameter A, and at the same time have substantial Confidence in ADAPT’s position on that Parameter, that revision may deserve especially high attention. The highest Confidence level we assign to any position is 95%, since one can rarely be ‘sure’ of anything.

    [62] Wilber tends to assign the body to the Upper-Right Quadrant. See for instance Wilber’s comments on Michael Murphy’s The Future of the Body (SES, p. 579): “Murphy almost single-handedly has been representing the great importance of the Upper-Right quadrant in human transformation…” [underline ours] We would characterize Esalen’s attitude toward the body (not necessarily Murphy’s) as predominantly Upper-Left.

    [63] As Wilber points out (IP 53-4), the Enneagram Roles are examples of true horizontal equivalence – since each of the nine Roles exist on the same hierarchical level.

    [64] Wilber differentiates between the two forms of growth, not by explicitly naming them, but by assigning them to different sections of his studies. In Integral Psychology, for example, Restoration Growth is addressed on pp. 91-110 and Table 1A – while a Program for Actualization growth (primarily) is outlined on pp. 113-14 (although at this point still called ‘integral therapy’). For examples of Wilber’s two approaches, see Appendix B3 (Restoration) and Appendix B1-2 (Actualization) in this study.

    [65] Note the left-hand column of all Wilber’s Tables in our Arrays. Note in particular Table 1A, the Fundamental Developmental Sequence – which we have transcribed directly from the left-hand reference column of Wilber’s Tables, adding a definition of each Step that corresponds (to the best of our understanding) to Wilber’s intent. See also the Fundamental Developmental Sequence section, page 5, of the Introduction to those Tables.

    [66] References to each of the entities of identity can be found, for example, in IP: Proximate/Distal, pp. 333-36; Witness, pp. 126-27; Personae, Enneagram Roles, and other Types, pp. 53-54; Gender, pp. 120-21; Functional Self, pp. 37-7, 226; Sub-Personalities, pp. 100-02. Generational identity is not covered by Wilber, but is to be found in Strauss & Howe, Generations (see Resources).

    [67] Wilber’s ‘functional invariants’ of the Self comprises a similar list of up to seven entities: metabolism, tension regulation, defenses, will, intersubjectivity, identity, cognition, navigation, and integration (IP 36-37, 226).

    [68] Integral Spirituality sometimes reads almost like marketing brochure for Integral Institute (II). The services of II and its divisions are extolled at least 18 times in the text, and web addresses are offered at least 9 times. Likewise, some AQAL Journal articles read like pitches for II’s therapy and counseling services. II and its divisions do have some great offerings, and they deserve to be promoted vigorously. However, the reader of any book or scholarly journal that purports objectivity should at least be offered some alternative venues.

    [69] From our perspective, a Persona is not Stage-specific, but can be manifested at any Stage of development to deal with real-life circumstances. Wilber uses Persona in a more restricted sense, to refer specifically to the Membership-Self (conformist Role-Self) or to the Rule/Role region of his ‘correlative structures’ (steps 12-18 in the FDS). (see IP 91, 126, 240-41, and 198 self-sense column)

    [70] Wilber’s ‘fulcrum’ consists of three phases: differentiation, identification, and integration (IP, p. 93. See also IP, pp. 35-36, 92-108, and BHE, p. 131.).

    [71] ADAPT may not incorporate in Realms all implications of Wilber’s three ‘spheres.’

    [72] Wilber’s model integrates human experience beautifully at a conceptual level. However, at a deep experiential level, Wilber gives little indication how disparate growth experiences will be integrated into a balanced, harmonious whole. His outline of ILP suggests that the exercises themselves may provide some degree of unification. Beyond this, three articles in Wilber’s AQAL Journal suggest that therapists from Integral Psychology Center and Integral Psychiatry Centers (both divisions of Integral Institute), and perhaps spiritual teachers from Integral Spiritual Center, might serve this function. Both Short (pp. 110 and 125) and Ingersoll (pp. 132, 133, 142) specifically extol the services of these II organizations. Ingersoll and Cook-Greuter are co-directors of II’s Integral Psychology Center. See Resources section, Articles.

    [73] The huge assemblage of Wilber’s Tables in our study Arrays of Light contains only two sparsely-populated Tables for Life Passages and Body Passages. All the remaining Tables focus on psychological, spiritual, and socio-cultural development. In Arrays, compare the number of Studies in Tables 3 (Life Development) and 5 (Physical Development) with the great collection of investigations in Table groups 4 (Psychological Development), 6 (Spiritual Stages and States), and 2 (Spectrum of Consciousness).

    [74] In discussing Collective Participants, Wilber’s emphasis is almost exclusively on Cultures. See IP 145-49, 154-55.

    [75] Wilber particularly notes this phenomenon as it pertains to the spiritual Realm (IP 126, 141-42, 266) – but it also pertains to the other two internal Passages as well.

    [76] ADAPT may not incorporate in this all the implications of Wilber’s formulation. The cycle of Evolution and Involution is a highly-complex and esoteric subject covered at length in Wilber’s earlier works – especially The Atman Project (185-203), Up From Eden (299-313), and Eye of the Spirit (55-6, 62-3).

    [77] According to Wilber, there are five common definitions of ‘spirituality’: “(1) Spirituality involves the highest levels of any of the developmental lines. (2) Spirituality is the sum total of the highest levels of the developmental lines. (3) Spirituality is itself a separate developmental line. (4) Spirituality is an attitude (such as openness or love) that you can have at whatever stage you are at. (5) Spirituality basically involves peak experiences, not stages.” (IP, p. 129-35) We substitute the word States for Wilber’s ‘spirituality.’

    [78] For details, see Biographical Background in Appendix.

    [79] Wilber largely ignores external Life Passages, relegating that Realm to the status of ‘horizontal translation.’ Regarding Yale professor Daniel Levinson’s influential The Seasons of a Man’s Life, for example, he comments, “Several stage conceptions, such as Levinson’s, deal with the ‘seasons’ of horizontal translation, not stages of vertical transformation” (IP 227). Neither Levinson nor his prolific popularizer, Gail Sheehey, rate even an index reference in Integral Psychology.

    [80] Wilber portrays our interior architecture as an ‘Archeology’ -- where the Realms of Body, Psyche, and Spirit are stacked on one another, like layers of an archeological dig. (See for example: IP, The Archeology of Spirit, pp. 89-114.) This distinction alters the whole strategy of personal growth or therapeutic treatment. With a layered or Stacked Model (Wilber’s) the Realms of Body, Mind, and Spirit are dealt with sequentially – because they succeed one another on the developmental ladder. With a Multiple-Functionality Model (ADAPT), all three Realms are addressed simultaneously at every Stage of development -- because they are structurally inseparable.

    [81] This percentage helps the reader assess how much weight or credibility to give to any proposed modification. For example, if we propose a substantial revision in Parameter A, and at the same time have substantial Confidence in ADAPT’s position on that Parameter, that revision may deserve especially high attention. The highest Confidence level we assign to any position is 95%, since one can rarely be ‘sure’ of anything.

    [82] Wilber tends to assign the body to the Upper-Right Quadrant. See for instance Wilber’s comments on Michael Murphy’s The Future of the Body (SES, p. 579): “Murphy almost single-handedly has been representing the great importance of the Upper-Right quadrant in human transformation…” [underline ours] We would characterize Esalen’s attitude toward the body (not necessarily Murphy’s) as predominantly Upper-Left.

    [83] As Wilber points out (IP 53-4), the Enneagram Roles are examples of true horizontal equivalence – since each of the nine Roles exist on the same hierarchical level.

    [84] Wilber’s model integrates human experience beautifully at a conceptual level. However, at a deep experiential level, Wilber gives little indication how disparate growth experiences will be integrated into a balanced, harmonious whole. His outline of ILP suggests that the exercises themselves may provide some degree of unification. Beyond this, three articles in Wilber’s AQAL Journal suggest that therapists from Integral Psychology Center and Integral Psychiatry Centers (both divisions of Integral Institute), and perhaps spiritual teachers from Integral Spiritual Center, might serve this function. Both Short (pp. 110 and 125) and Ingersoll (pp. 132, 133, 142) specifically extol the services of these II organizations. Ingersoll and Cook-Greuter are co-directors of II’s Integral Psychology Center. See Resources section, Articles.

    [85] Wilber largely ignores external Life Passages, relegating that Realm to the status of ‘horizontal translation.’ Regarding Yale professor Daniel Levinson’s influential The Seasons of a Man’s Life, for example, he comments, “Several stage conceptions, such as Levinson’s, deal with the ‘seasons’ of horizontal translation, not stages of vertical transformation” (IP 227). Neither Levinson nor his prolific popularizer, Gail Sheehey, rate even an index reference in Integral Psychology.

    [86] Wilber differentiates between the two forms of growth, not by explicitly naming them, but by assigning them to different sections of his studies. In Integral Psychology, for example, Restoration Growth is addressed on pp. 91-110 and Table 1A – while a Program for Actualization growth (primarily) is outlined on pp. 113-14 (although at this point still called ‘integral therapy’). For examples of Wilber’s two approaches, see Appendix B3 (Restoration) and Appendix B1-2 (Actualization) in this study.

    [87] References to each of the entities of identity can be found, for example, in IP: Proximate/Distal, pp. 333-36; Witness, pp. 126-27; Personae, Enneagram Roles, and other Types, pp. 53-54; Gender, pp. 120-21; Functional Self, pp. 37-7, 226; Sub-Personalities, pp. 100-02. Generational identity is not covered by Wilber, but is to be found in Strauss & Howe, Generations (see Resources).

    [88] Integral Spirituality sometimes reads almost like marketing brochure for Integral Institute (II). The services of II and its divisions are extolled at least 18 times in the text, and web addresses are offered at least 9 times. Likewise, some AQAL Journal articles read like pitches for II’s therapy and counseling services. II and its divisions do have some great offerings, and they deserve to be promoted vigorously. However, the reader of any book or scholarly journal that purports objectivity should at least be offered some alternative venues.

    [89] Wilber’s ‘fulcrum’ consists of three phases: differentiation, identification, and integration (IP, p. 93. See also IP, pp. 35-36, 92-108, and BHE, p. 131.).

    [90] The huge assemblage of Wilber’s Tables in our study Arrays of Light contains only two sparsely-populated Tables for Life Passages and Body Passages. All the remaining Tables focus on psychological, spiritual, and socio-cultural development. In Arrays, compare the number of Studies in Tables 3 (Life Development) and 5 (Physical Development) with the great collection of investigations in Table groups 4 (Psychological Development), 6 (Spiritual Stages and States), and 2 (Spectrum of Consciousness).

    [91] In discussing Collective Participants, Wilber’s emphasis is almost exclusively on Cultures. See IP 145-49, 154-55.

    [92] Wilber particularly notes this phenomenon as it pertains to the spiritual Realm (IP 126, 141-42, 266) – but it also pertains to the other two internal Passages as well.

    [93] For details, see Biographical Background in Appendix.

    [94] Note the left-hand column of all Wilber’s Tables in our Arrays. Note in particular Table 1A, the Fundamental Developmental Sequence – which we have transcribed directly from the left-hand reference column of Wilber’s Tables, adding a definition of each Step that corresponds (to the best of our understanding) to Wilber’s intent. See also the Fundamental Developmental Sequence section, page 5, of the Introduction to those Tables.

    [95] Wilber’s ‘functional invariants’ of the Self comprises a similar list of up to seven entities: metabolism, tension regulation, defenses, will, intersubjectivity, identity, cognition, navigation, and integration (IP 36-37, 226).

    [96] From our perspective, a Persona is not Stage-specific, but can be manifested at any Stage of development to deal with real-life circumstances. Wilber uses Persona in a more restricted sense, to refer specifically to the Membership-Self (conformist Role-Self) or to the Rule/Role region of his ‘correlative structures’ (steps 12-18 in the FDS). (see IP 91, 126, 240-41, and 198 self-sense column)

    [97] ADAPT may not incorporate into Realms all implications of Wilber’s three ‘spheres.’

    [98] ADAPT may not incorporate into this all the implications of Wilber’s formulation. The cycle of Evolution and Involution is a highly-complex and esoteric subject covered at length in Wilber’s earlier works – especially The Atman Project (185-203), Up From Eden (299-313), and Eye of the Spirit (55-6, 62-3).

    [99] According to Wilber, there are five common definitions of ‘spirituality’: “(1) Spirituality involves the highest levels of any of the developmental lines. (2) Spirituality is the sum total of the highest levels of the developmental lines. (3) Spirituality is itself a separate developmental line. (4) Spirituality is an attitude (such as openness or love) that you can have at whatever stage you are at. (5) Spirituality basically involves peak experiences, not stages.” (IP, p. 129-35) We substitute the word States for Wilber’s ‘spirituality.’

    [100] Wilber portrays our interior architecture as an ‘Archeology’ -- where the Realms of Body, Psyche, and Spirit are stacked on one another, like layers of an archeological dig. (See for example: IP, The Archeology of Spirit, pp. 89-114.) This distinction alters the whole strategy of personal growth or therapeutic treatment. With a layered or Stacked Model (Wilber’s) the Realms of Body, Mind, and Spirit are dealt with sequentially – because they succeed one another on the developmental ladder. With a Multiple-Functionality Model (ADAPT), all three Realms are addressed simultaneously at every Stage of development -- because they are structurally inseparable.

    [101] Table condensed from Arrays of Light, Table 8: Processes of Growth and Transformation.

    [102] See IP, pp. 100-02, and Footnote 22, pp. 246-47.

    [103] According to the II website (paraphrased), ‘Integral Institute is a non-profit organization dedicated to bringing the Integral Approach to bear on personal and global issues. The Integral Multiplex is our constellation of online offerings. Grouped into 7 major spheres, with various other sites and projects currently in development, the Multiplex includes: Integral Naked, where you'll find audio and video conversations with leading-edge teachers, artists, and visionaries. Integral University, where you'll find online courses and accredited degrees in Integral Theory and its application to specific fields. Integral Training, where you'll find workshops and practical tools for bringing Integral awareness into your life. Integral Spiritual Center, where you'll find teachers and practitioners from all traditions and lineages, attempting to forge an Integral spirituality for the 21st Century. AQAL Journal, II’s official academic journal, where you’ll find cutting edge of Integral explorations: philosophical, theoretical, pragmatic, experiential, and critical. Integral Coaching & Consulting, where you'll find experts in personal, professional, and spiritual development, available to help you or your organization find more Integral pathways to success. Integral Friends & Partners, where you'll find a directory of some outstanding organizations and individuals doing Integral work in the world. The Integral Institute sphere is this website itself—the Hub of the online Integral universe.’

    [104] Riso and Hudson version. See Resources.





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