Table 3: STAGES OF DEVELOPMENT Ė Life Passages

These Studies trace human development in the external Realm of Life Passages.Life Passages are the external phases of accomplishment or achievement that occur as we progress through the biologic life cycle.Life Passages is the one Table that uses as a benchmark (vertical axis) the actual Stages of biological development Ė rather than the psycho-spiritual Stages of the FDS.These Studies are by academic and popular Western investigators.

 

CONTRIBUTOR/INVESTIGATOR
(birth/death dates)

H & K Martin

H & K Martin

Jean Piaget
(1896-1980)

Eric Erikson
(1902-94)

Abraham Maslow
(1908-70)

Daniel Levinson
(~1930- )

Gail Sheehey
(~1940- )

Harry Gardiner
(1943- )

Ken Wilber

 

TOPIC

Age of Emergence
(average years)

Stage/ Transition Characteristics

Cognitive
Development
[+Wilber additions]

Psychosocial Development

Hierarchy of Needs

Menís Life Passages

Life Passages

Cross-cultural waves of development

Fundamental Developmental Sequence

 

POSITION/ROLE

 

 

Renowned Swiss developmental psychologist

Famous Danish psychologist

Founder of humanistic & transpersonal psychology.

Influential Yale psych prof

Journalist and best-selling author.Reigning queen of Life Passage studies

U Wisconsin sociologist

 

 

CONTRIBUTION/

SIGNIFICANCE

 

 

Organized child cognitive development into series of stages.

Influential stage theory of human development

Described how Needs emerge hierarchically.

Groundbreaking research on life passages. Influenced Sheehy

Popularized stage model of adult life development

Classic study of cross-cultural human development

 

 

PERTINENT WORKS/ STUDIES (date/s)

 

 

Growth of Logical Thinking (1958)

Childhood & Society (1950)

Toward a Psychology of Being (1968), Farther Reaches of Human Nature (1983)

Seasons of a Manís Life (1978)

Passages (1976), New Passages (1995)

Lives Across Cultures (<1997) w/Kosmitski

 

Text Box: Increasing Age & Maturity

WILBER SOURCE

 

 

IP 22-25, 201, 208, 197-217 benchmark

IP 39-40, 203

IP 84-85, 212

IP 227

 

IP 23, 213

Bardos: IP 17,
ES 204-06.
Clouds: IP 141-42, 264

 

#

STAGES/ TRANSITIONS (Martin)

(Category source: IP 227, footnote 3)

*** Read columns below in order of increasing development:From bottom to top ***

30

Legacy

After-death

Genetic, cultural, psychological & material endowments passed to succeeding generations

 

 

 

 

 

 

[Beyond consciousness/ Divine]. Tibetan Bardos.

29

Death

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

- transition -

28

Senescence

95-100+

Diminished capacities

 

 

 

Late late adulthood (80+)

Celebratory 100ís

Noble 90ís

 

Non-dual

27

Debility or illness

 

 

 

 

 

Infirmities & illness

Diminished capacities

 

- transition -

26

Elderhood

75-95

Communicating experience and wisdom to next generation

 

Immortality vs extinction

OLD AGE (75 yrs-death): {26-30}

 

Late adulthood (65-80)

Uninhibited 80ís

Sage 70ís

 

Causal (formless)

Text Box: Increasing Age & Maturity25

Passing-the-baton

 

 

 

 

 

Late-adult transition (60-65)

Passage to Age of Integrity

Late mid-life crisis: Mortality, meaning, menopause

 

- transition -

24

Maturity

55-75

Movement from success to significance

 

Integrity vs despair LATER ADULT (60-75yrs): {23-25}

 

Middle adulthood (40-65)

Flaming 50ís

SECOND ADULTHOOD {22-30}

 

Subtle (archetype):

23

Mid-life passage

 

 

 

 

 

Mid-life transition (40-45)

Passage to Age of Mastery

Early mid-life crisis:
Little Death of First Adulthood

 

- transition -

22

Middle Adulthood

35-55

Culmination of external life achievements

 

Generativity/ Text Box: Increasing Age & Maturitystagnation

MID-ADULT (34-60): {21-22}

Self-transcendence

 

Flourishing 40ís

 

Psychic (vision)

21

Making-the-grade

 

 

 

 

 

 

Age 35 inventory

POST-POST-CONVENTIONAL {21-beyond}

- transition -

20

Young adulthood

21-35

Striving for external life achievements

Postformal: Polyvalent logic - systems of systems

Intimacy vs isolation EARLY ADULT (22-35 yrs): {20}

Self-actualization

Early adulthood (17-45)

Turbulent 30ís

FIRST ADULTHOOD {20-22}

Tryout 20ís

Integration of self & culture

Vision/ logic

19

Nudged from the nest

19-21

 

Early Polyvalent

POSTFORMAL
{19.5-beyond}

Late FormOp;

Individual identity vs role confusion

LATE ADOLESCENCE (18-22 yrs): {18-19}

 

Early adult transition (17-22)

PROVISIONAL ADULTHOOD {18-20}

Passage to first adulthood

Relativism

- transition -

18

 

15-19

 

FormOp 3

 

 

 

 

Self-critical
POST- CONVENTIONAL {17.5-20}

Formal: Late

17

Adolescence

13-14

Formation of independent identity

FormOp 2

Group identity vs alienation

EARLY ADOLESCENCE (12-18 yrs): {16-17}

Self-esteem

Childhood & adolescence (0-22)

PROLONGED ADOLESCENCE {16-20}

 

Formal: Early

Text Box: Increasing Age & Maturity16

Coming-of-age

11-12

 

FormOp 1

FORM-OP
(Formal operational)
{16.5-19.5}

ConOp3

 

 

 

 

Skill mastery

- transition -

15

 

9-10

 

ConOp 2

 

 

 

 

Rules, regulations

Rule/role: Late

14

Older childhood

6-8

Early schooling. First enrollment in society outside the home

ConOp 1

CON-OP
(Concrete operational)
{13.5-16.5}

Industry vs inferiority

MID CHILD (6-12 yrs):
{13-15}

Belongingness/ love

 

 

CONVENTIONAL {13.5-17.5}

Rule/role: Early

13

Entering school

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Symbolic flowering

- transition -

12

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Notational systems

Concept

11

Young childhood

3-6

First ventures toward independence

Preoperational: Intuitive- conceptual

REP MIND
(representational mind)
{10.5-13.5}

Intiative vs guilt-anxiety

EARLY CHILD (3-6 yrs): {10-12}

Safety/ security

 

 

Digital mapping

Endocept

10

Onset of Terrible 2s

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Analog mapping

Symbol
- transition -

9

 

 

 

Preoperational: Preconceptual

 

 

 

 

Event mapping

PRECONVENTIONAL {9-13.5}

Image

8

Toddler

1.5-3

First efforts at self-initiative and self-support

PHANTASMIC-EMOTIONAL
{7.5-10.5}

Autonomy vs shame-doubt
YOUNGER (18mos-3yrs): {7-9}

 

 

 

 

 

Impulse/ emotion

7

Crawling/ walking

 

 

 

 

Beginning of safety

 

 

 

- transition -

6

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Exocept

5

Infancy

0-1.5

Total sustenance and bonding outside the womb

 

 

 

 

 

 

Perception

4

Birth

 

 

 

 

 

Early childhood transition (0-3)

 

 

- transition -

Text Box: Increasing Age & Maturity3

Gestation

Pre-birth

Total sustenance and support within the womb

SENSORI-MOTOR {2.5-7.5}

Trust vs mistrust

INFANCY (0-18mos):
{3-6}

 

 

 

 

Sensation

2

Conception

 

 

 

 

Physiological

 

 

 

- transition -

1

Heritage

Pre-conception

The genetic and cultural endowments we inherit

 

 

 

 

 

 

[Before matter/ Void].Trailing clouds of glory.