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An independent forum for a critical discussion of the integral philosophy of Ken Wilber
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Harry Donkers graduated in food technology and general econometrics and has a PhD in price analysis. He wrote over 180 scientific and applied papers on statistical, economic, agricultural, and food subjects. Since 2003 he is active as a consultant and independent researcher at Innonet in the Netherlands. E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org
Yijing Integral (YI)
A New Natural and Cosmic Bagua
The paper deals with Yijing in Chinese philosophy. Based on a further exploration of the Diagram of the Supreme Polarity of Zhou Dunyi, we develop a cosmological-anthropological model. Heaven and Earth are seen as father and mother of the trigrams. Both in the natural and in the cosmic cycle this model leads us to a new bagua, the YI bagua, and a new arrangement of hexagrams. In the natural cycle, as compared to king Wen's approach, we interchange Earth and Mountain keeping the trigrams in correspondence with the production cycle. This leads to the natural bagua variant. The cosmic cycle fits in a coordinate system. Moreover it corresponds with the cosmic ring and, if we follow the path spiralling, we get the sequence of the trigrams corresponding the production cycle of the Five elements. This leads to the cosmic bagua variant. We compare both variants with each other and with the bagua of king Wen and of Fu Xi.
In the Yijing the processes in the cosmos and in the human world are presented as the result of the interplay between yin and yang. The Yijing and the philosophy of Confucianism have strongly influenced each other. For Confucius, philosophy was a means of learning to become a human being. The moral community and the individual person are inseparable. An individual feels part of a larger whole. The Yijing was often consulted to gain insight into situations and to adjust their own actions accordingly.
The neo-Confucian philosophy has also contributed to a better understanding of the Yijing. Zhou Dunyi shifted the focus to the metaphysical discussion about the origin of the universe. Through his view of the universe and how it came about, Zhou Dunyi underlined the co-partnership of the universe and the innumerable things in the constant self-renewal of the universe. In reinterpreting classic Confucian texts, Zhou Dunyi based his philosophy of the Supreme Polarity on a creative reading of the Doctrine of the Middle, the Analects and the Book of Changes.
The polarities of Taiji, Yin and Yang, are complementary and interdependent. They are therefore indivisible and represent a non-dualistic way of looking at reality. In the East, man/woman is non-dual. There is one reality and nothing stands alone (holistic). This non-dual view of the world is very different from the Western view of the world. In Western thinking one starts from an 'I'. Plato's philosophy is known for its dualism. In dualism there is a difference between a reality that precedes the natural things and a reality that is present in the natural things themselves. This corresponds to the strict distinction that Descartes made between the material body and the immaterial soul. This distinction is not made in the East. In Buddhism, "I" is more of an illusion.
A new elaboration of the Diagram of the Supreme Polarity offers new leads with the Yijing. Partly with a western gaze we position the trigrams in a broader context. In this paper we demonstrate this by developing meaningful new trigram and hexagram arrangements.
2. Diagram of the Supreme Polarity of Zhou Dunyi and the brothers Cheng
The thinkers in the Northern Song Dynasty, the brothers Cheng, Cheng Hao (1032 - 1085) and Cheng Yi (1033 - 1108), and Zhou Dunyi (1017 - 1073), after the collapse of the Tang dynasty, extend the doctrine of Confucius and Mencius into a complete metaphysics (Defoort and Standaert, 1998, 2003). They derived numerous ideas from Daoism and Buddhism. They called their doctrine the "Doctrine of the Way" (daoxue), whose cosmological-metaphysical basis was laid by Zhou Dunyi with his diagram of the the Supreme Polarity or Supreme Extreme (Taiji tu shuo) (Hon, 2010). The metaphysical and epistemological dimension of neo-Confucianism (from the 11th to the 20th century) was based on the Yijing, in which the processes in the cosmos and in the human world are presented as the result of the interplay between yin and yang. Yin and yang transformations result in the myriad beings, or the 10,000 things.
The Diagram of the Supreme Polarity describes the evolution of the dynamic and self-generating universe. Graphically the Diagram consists of five circles, see figure 1.
The upper circle, Wuji, is an empty circle that symbolizes the universe as a whole. The round shape of the circle indicates that the universe is an organic entity that has no beginning and end.
The second circle contains three nested half circles with dark and light colours, representing yin and yang. The arrangement of the half circles symbolizes the dynamics of yin and yang as a dynamic of bipolar complementarity. From the perspective of the Book of Changes (Wilhelm, 2016), the second circle is actually an image of two trigrams. The Kan-trigram (Water) and the Li-trigram (Fire). We use capital letters for the trigrams.
The third circle consists of a group of five small circles, each of which symbolizes one of the Five phases or Five elements (wuxing): wood, fire, earth, metal and water. To emphasize the connection of the Five phases, the five circles are arranged in a rectangle with the earth as the source of the other four forces in the middle. The lines connect one circle with the other. It should be noted that this group of circles is connected to the second circle by a small "V" sign. This sign shows that the Five phases are the products of the interaction of yin and yang.
Like the first circle, the fourth and fifth circles are empty circles. They focus on biological reproduction. The fourth circle shows how yin, the female, and yang, the male, move. The fifth circle compares the process by which the innumerable beings are produced by the union of the two sexes. In these two circles the elusive cosmic forces manifest themselves in the creation of the multitude of beings.
Based on the Diagram of the Supreme Polarity, Zhou Dunyi in the Taiji tu shuo makes three important characteristics about the universe:
- First, he emphasizes that the universe, unlike the Buddhist claim, is not empty, but a physical existence.
- Second, Zhou repeats that the universe is organic: The transformation of yang and the integration of yin give rise to wood, fire, earth, metal and water. The universe is constantly changing to renew itself. Because the universe is organic, the unfolding of the universe can be understood in two opposite directions: an expansion of the Supreme Polarity step-by-step to the 10,000 things and a process of tracing the source from the 10,000 things to the Supreme Polarity. We are talking here about a hierarchical metaphysics. One can descend to the 10,000 things and ascend to the Supreme Polarity respectively.
- Third, Zhou Dunyi emphasizes that the universe and the numerous beings are interdependent as part and whole. The universe and the innumerable things are ontologically the same, but their functions differ. Part and whole need each other. As the universe unites the innumerable beings, the innumerable beings enliven the universe.
3. Further exploration of the Diagram of the Supreme Polarity
In this section we explore the Diagram of the Supreme Polarity further towards a cosmological-anthropological model, that is to say a model that describes man/woman and his/her social behaviour in cosmic development. See figure 2. In figure 2 the trigrams are coloured and the choice of colours is explained further in section 6.
The diagram of the Supreme Polarity describes in a nutshell the evolution of our cosmos. In origin there was emptiness. The primeval beginning is the Wuji, drawn as a circle.
In the original Diagram of the Supreme Polarity the second circle symbolizes the dynamics of yin and yang. The Supreme Polarity in activity generates yang; yet at the limit of activity it is still. In stillness it generates yin; yet at the limit of stillness it is also active. Activity and stillness alternate; each is the basis of the other. In the second circle we recognize the trigrams Fire and Water. According to Wilhelm (2016, p.42), the Taiji simply posits the line, the ridge beam. The line in itself is one. This generates the two primary forces, with which a twosome enters the world, left - right, up - down, front – back. In short the world of opposites makes its entry, yang and yin, respectively, represented by an unbroken and a dashed line:
___ and _ _. A continuous line symbolizes the light, the heaven. A broken line symbolizes the dark, the earth. The Taiji is prior to Heaven and Earth. We therefore choose not to symbolize the dynamics of yin and yang through the trigrams Water and Fire or Heaven and Earth, but to use the original Taiji.
The void and the non-being were replaced by li and qi by Zhu-Xi (1130-1200). Each thing has two aspects: what makes it exist is li, and what it really is, is qi. The existence of qi implies the existence of li, and vice versa. All forces are due to the activity of qi, the material principle of reality in terms of energy (vital energy). However, it is not just a matter of qi, because the principle li of the pattern, the form, existed before. Both cannot exist without each other. All existence is the result of li and qi (Bor and Van der Leeuw, 2013).
Li refers to the underlying order of nature (xing), as it appears in organic forms. Li is not a thing itself, it exists outside space and time and moves things; If by the li of a sort of thing, this thing comes to exist, the li forms the nature of the thing. As an example we can say that the li of a square is what makes a square square.
Qi is a part of every living thing. The core of the neo-Confucian view of the origin and structure of the universe is the entire conceptual system of Taiji, yin and yang and the Five phases. If we extend this to the trigrams then it is li that makes the images of the trigrams exist and the activity of qi that takes care of the cosmic forces of the trigrams.
The transformation of yang and the integration of yin give rise to the circulation of the Five phases: wood, fire, earth, metal, water and again wood. As in the original Diagram of the Supreme Polarity we use the “v”-sign to express that the Five phases are the products of the interaction of yin and yang. In the original Diagram of the Supreme Polarity the Five phases are arranged in a rectangle. We combine the Five Phases with the associated trigrams, including Heaven and Earth. The trigrams are empowered by qi and take forms based on li. The basis of the cosmic development is the force qi, which supplies the cosmic energy from the free energy of the primeval energy so that the pattern li can realize the images. Heaven and Earth are the Father and Mother of the trigrams. This is in line with the Chinese and Islamic mythology in which decisive inspired messages are sent to man/woman from the chaos of the night. The Heaven-inspired messages lead man/woman to reach a balanced flow of the Five elements. The different measures of fullness and emptiness, represented by these Five elements, go back to the receptive Earth.
In the elaborated Diagram we sequentially arrange the Five elements according to the production cycle. The arrows in the form of a star indicate the conquest cycle. It shows that in the development process things can go wrong. In the original Diagram the conquest cycle is not depicted.
In the original Diagram a small empty circle symbolizes the connection between the five elements and the fourth and fifth circle. The individual elements are all connected by lines with this small blank circle, except for the line between earth and this empty circle. In other versions of the Ultimate Polarity, however, we see this line also drawn! See for example Wang (2005, p.110). I solve this connection by drawing a dotted circle around all trigrams.
Just like the first circle, the last two circles are empty. Together the last two circles symbolize the organic process, with which yin and yang produce the innumerable beings.
Model of the cosmic development
The Diagram of the Supreme Polarity as a whole gives an idea of the cosmic development, or the evolution of the universe. To develop a model we use eastern and western thinking (a.o. Haiming, 2012, Gao, 2015, Van Esch, 2017 and Libbrecht (2016). The vital energy (qi) and the form aspect or pattern (li) plays a central role in this. Also Libbrecht (1995a) sees energy and form/pattern as the most universal basic concepts. Libbrecht (2016) developed a model of intercultural philosophy that also distinguishes between an energetic process and a form aspect (in-form-ation). Every phenomenon is energy x information. He uses a coordinate system, because in his comparative philosophical model he wants to develop a paradigm-free system. In Libbrecht's view energy in the cosmos transforms from bound energy into free energy. According to Libbrecht everything in nature happens on the basis of fixed patterns (immanence). In his view, therefore, there is only bound energy in nature. Only man/woman can, in his view, invent new patterns and in man/woman there is free energy (transcendence). The vision of Libbrecht is actually a short-term vision. What happens in nature according to fixed patterns only takes place in the short term. In the long run, the origin and formation of nature (from molecules and cells, via plants and animals to the creation of man/woman) was not a fixed process, with a predictable pattern.
In this paper we have a different view of energy than Libbrecht does. We think the unfolding of the universe is a cyclical process that starts with free (chaos) energy and goes to a state of bound energy, after which we find a process towards free energy. Also in the Diagram of the Supreme Polarity the unfolding of the universe is understood in two opposite directions, as we saw in section 2. This is also in line with the thoughts of Arthur Young (1999), who describes the development of the universe in his 'Reflexive Universe'. He considers the development from the very beginning until the onset of consciousness in humans. He shows that at first there is a decline in degrees of freedom (involution) and then an increase in degrees of freedom (evolution). The light that has developed after the Big Bang has maximum degrees of freedom and consists entirely of free energy (transcendent). An involutional period of binding of energy then breaks, which leads to bound energy: from highly movable particles, via atoms to immobile molecules. The involution process is essentially an immanent process. The energy is turned inwards. From there begins an evolutionary period of liberation of energy, through the creation of plants, animals and ultimately humans. The evolution process is a transcendent process, where the energy is turned outwards. Young's model is fractal. It can also be used at other levels. As an example on an organizational level, Scharmer (2009) treats a change trajectory as a U-process.
In this paper we assume that in terms of the Yijing, as described in the production cycle, with Heaven as a booster and the Earth as a receiver, a parallel development takes place. Analogous to the above-described development of the 'Reflexive Universe' we see in the cosmic development of Yijing also first a development from free energy to bound energy and then again a development from bound to free energy. See figure 3.
In the involution-process we arrive from the free energy of the transcendent three-dimensional Heaven/Inspiration via Wind/Observation, moving in two dimensions (Wind can go in all directions and from top to bottom and vice versa), and Fire/Thinking, moving in one dimension (fire rises), at the, immanent, Mountain/Body and Lake/Feelings, both of which have no degrees of freedom (Mountain and Lake can not change places). With Mountain and Lake we have arrived at the point of bound energy (immanent). From here a process of evolution takes place. We come first to Water/Soul that can move in one dimension (water falls), then we come to Thunder/Spirit, which can move in two dimensions (Thunder can go in all directions and from top to bottom and vice versa) and finally we come at the transcendent, three-dimensional Earth/Receptive. The evolutionary process finally ends up in free energy again.
In a holistic view, transcendence and immanence are not separate, but two polarizations, which form an integral part of reality. In the immanent process we deal with trigrams that are closed to heaven, while in the transcendent process we deal with trigrams that are open to heaven. Man/woman lives in this field of tension.
Nature (xing) presents itself to us in organic forms. It concerns objects and situations in reality. Li is not a thing itself, but refers to the underlying order of nature. It is not about the representations themselves, but about the possibility (of the mind) to form representations. This goes back to Brentano (1838-1917), who calls this intentionality. Libbrecht (1995b) defines intentionality as the whole of spiritual states that focus on objects or situations in reality and the intentional actions that are driven thereby (consciously or not). It concerns dealing with all intentional states that are related to each other in a holistic network, i.e. information processing (https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Intentionality). In Libbrecht's form axis the pattern goes from pure knowledge to pure experience. A focus on knowledge corresponds with Plato 's dualism, a dichotomy of reality, like a separation between a material body and an immaterial soul. As in western thinking one start from an “I”. The intentionality is focused on the self. Libbrecht speaks of ego-intentionality. Trigrams are closed to the earth. A focus on experience corresponds to non-dualism. The orientation of intentionality is on the other person. Libbrecht calls this alter-intentionality. Trigrams are open to earth. From the power of li we see a growth of (intelligent) spirit towards ego-intentionality and a growth of (emotional) mind towards alter-intentionality. The polarities of the pattern axis are therefore ego-intentionality and alter-intentionality. See figure 4.
In the West man/woman is more self-centred. In the East man/woman also has attention for his/her own inner self, but more to be able to open him-/herself to fellow human beings and the world. 'Letting go' means loosening earthly worries in the West and releasing self-centeredness in order to be able to care for the other person in the East.
Van IJssel (2008, p. 57) quotes Heelas a.o. (2005), who speaks of a 'self-in-isolation' in the case of ego-intentionality and a 'self-in-relation' in the case of alter-intentionality. The latter case concerns the orientation 'the we of me', whereby the self is deeply connected to others and develops 'in-relation with'. It is a development in which interdependence and independence go together, according to Heelas.
In our model we place energy on the horizontal axis. Polarities are: free energy directed inwards (closed to heaven) and free energy directed outwards (open to heaven), with bound energy in the origin. Pattern in the vertical axis has polarities: 'I'-focused or individuality (ego-intentionality) and 'We'-focused or collectivity (alter-intentionality). This is the basic model that we encounter further in this paper. The axes in this coordinate system show similarities with the axes of the quadrant system that forms the basis of Wilber's Integral Theory (2004). Wilber tried with his 'theory of everything' to create a framework for a holistic approach to problems.
The two axes divide the coordinate system into four quadrants, that defines four fundamental cosmological perspectives:
- Ego-intentionality directed inwards = Naturality
- Ego-intentionality directed outwards = Rationality
- Alter-intentionality directed outwards = Morality/Spirituality
- Alter-intentionality directed inwards = Mysticism
Naturality in the top left quadrant is phylogenetic (aimed at survival of the individual). The subject is an organic part of the object (S part of O), as in Daoism. The art of living of Daoism focuses on following our intuition, arranging for nature and finding harmony. Human life is a process of becoming. The good life in Chinese philosophy is not to carry out a grand program or goal, but rather to walk a way (Yiming, 2013, Puett and Gross-Loh, 2016).
In the rational quadrant (quadrant at the top right) 'being' is central, with roots in Greek philosophy. The subject is opposite to the object (S <-> O). This dualism presupposes a separate existence for both the mind and the body. Dualism assumes that reality consists of multiple substances. One experiences reality in terms of good and evil. In the Western world, dualism can be traced back to Plato and Aristotle. Although Plato (427- 347) already mentioned 'body and soul', it was René Descartes (1596-1650) who made a distinction between the world of thought and the outside world. The rise of the natural sciences creates a scientific approach to reality and therefore a gap between the material world and the spiritual world.
Dualism, however, is not exclusive to the western world. In Eastern culture we can also find traces of dualism. In the east, the conception of dualism can be traced back to Hindu philosophy and the school of Samkhya. Central to Samkhya philosophy is the concept of 'two-headedness'. The whole existence can be traced back to 'Purusha' and 'Prakriti'. Purusha literally means man, but stands for souls, inactive souls, or non-acting consciousness. Prakriti is the source of all matter. All phenomena arise from prakriti. Also with some representatives of neo-confucianism, like Zhu Xi, we see tendencies of dualism.
The lower right quadrant focuses on morality and spirituality. For Confucius, philosophy was a means of learning to be a good person as part of society that needs regulation (a.o. Libbrecht, 2016, James and Bretzke, 1995, Tazelaar, 2012). By means of rituals we can come to decent reactions. Experience (of rituals) was important. The subject includes the object (S includes O).
In the Mysticism quadrant (lower left quadrant) 'non-being' comes first. There is no distinction between material body and immaterial spirit: monism. Here, mysticism plays a part as in Buddhism. Buddhism wants to teach man/woman how he/she can free him-/herself from the bondage of this world and how he/she can achieve his liberation, or nirvana. The subject is one with the object (S = O) as monism states. For example, in monistic thought, the distinction between the inner and outer world does not exist. For monists everything is one. Body and mind are outer manifestations of that one. One assumes an underlying unity consciousness behind the world of phenomena. The word cosmos is also monistic and stands for one clean order. In the East the comparison can be made with the Hindu concept of the Brahman or the Tao, which was formulated by Laozi, among others. Reality is not experienced in terms of good and evil. Monism, however, is not exclusive to the eastern world. Western philosophy is increasingly open to a philosophy that no longer has a dualistic worldview. In Western tradition, also non-dualistic thinking is present. In the west, monism was formulated for the first time by Parmenides. According to Spinoza (1632 -1677) there is only one substance and body and mind are aspects of this. Hegel (1770 -1831) also strove for the development of a single overall concept, in which reality is not seen as static but as the outcome of a continuous, dialectical process in which new contradictions are removed each time. The concepts thesis, antithesis and synthesis are originally from Kant (1724-1804). He wonders, what we can actually know and what we can not know. Kant has a great interest in spirituality and mysticism, but how things really are is something we can never discover with our minds. He introduces the notion 'Ding an sich' in his 'Critique of Pure Vernunft'. A well-known modern representative of this position is Daniel Dennett.
The four basic perspectives that we distinguish in this cosmological model are: naturality, rationality, morality and mysticism. In his model Libbrecht only distinguishes three dimensions. He summarizes naturality and morality under the heading of naturality. In our model naturality is confined to a situation where ego-intentionality is inward oriented (S part of O) as in Daoism. Opposite to this situation we see morality as a situation where alter-intentionality is outward oriented (S includes O) like in Confucianism. Compared to Libbrecht's model, in our model in figure 4 we can better see that the remaining perspectives rationality (S <-> O) and mysticism (S = O) are each other's opposites.
The perspectives in the quadrants of figure 4 are indeed facing each other but are also not strictly separated. We conclude that philosophy is becoming a world philosophy, a global dialogue between cultures. When we talk about these perspectives we no longer refer to an unchanging and essential core, but to something that is in constant change. This corresponds to the concepts of yin and yang, which we should not see as fixed contradictions, but which constantly merge and complement each other. In that sense, also the perspectives are complementary to each other.
4. From Five elements to trigrams in the natural cycle
In the Diagram of Supreme Polarity, in figure 2, we have assumed the special roles of the trigrams Heaven and Earth. We did not see these trigrams as elements at first, but as initiator and recipient respectively of the production cycle. An alternative possibility is to consider the trigrams Heaven and Earth, like the other trigrams, as elements. Heaven becomes then great metal and Earth becomes great earth. We now want to check whether the trigrams can be displayed in cycle form, with Heaven and Earth seen as elements, which constituted a natural cycle. That is a big challenge if we also want the wind directions to be correct. King Wen, who has established the oldest order of the trigrams, also had the job to connecting Heaven and Earth with the natural cycle (five elements) and to ensure correct wind directions.
A basis for this consideration is figure 6, which shows the relationship between the trigrams and the production cycle of the five elements, derived from the elaborated Diagram of the Supreme Polarity. To show that there is also a cycle in this part of the Diagram we add an arrow between Great earth and Great metal, indicating that the cycle starts again and on a new level.
The natural cycle or natural growth process is a general basic principle for preparing trigram arrangements. The natural cycle is symbolized by the cycle of a plant or tree over the course of a season. We can also think of the cycle of the seasons (spring, summer, autumn, winter). First there is a seed that wants to germinate. That is the beginning (caused by Heaven as initiator). The seed searches his way (by the wind) and germinates. It has become attached and comes above the ground in the light (through and from the fire). The plant grows calmly (like a mountain) and comes to maturity. Then the plant comes into bloom (as an attribute of the lake). The water allows the plant to live. The plant produces new seed and throws it over the fields (as with thunder). The earth receives the seed and saves it until the next season starts again.
In Figure 7 this sequence of trigrams is mapped together with the Five elements, the seasons and wind directions.
The development according to the production cycle outlined here begins with individual initiatives and ends with collective peace and progress. Then development starts again.
In Figure 6 Heaven and Earth are placed outside the cycle. We now will place these trigrams within the cycle so that they match the corresponding elements and form a natural cycle. See figure 8.
This action yields the following picture in which the order of the trigrams now matches the order of the elements. See figure 9.
In Figure 9 the sequence of the trigrams, including Heaven and Earth as elements, is in accordance with the order of the Five elements. However, the wind directions in this figure are not in accordance with the wind direction as indicated in the Hetu diagram. The Hetu diagram, or the plan of the yellow river, indicates the origin of the Five phases from the even and odd numbers, with the earth in the middle: the water in the north, the fire in the south, the wood in the east and the metal in the west (Wilhelm, 2016, p. 265). North (Water) and east (Thunder) are directly adjacent to each other in figure 9, while between south and west there is even room for two trigrams: Earth and Mountain. There are two options to make it better. We can either place the Earth (great earth) or the Mountain (small earth) between Water and Thunder. King Wen has chosen to place the Mountain between Water and Thunder.
Positioning Mountain (small earth) between Thunder and Water, as in figure 10, solves the dilemma in a way that the wind directions are correct again. This move leads to the bagua of king Wen, which has been going on for more than two thousand years.
We choose to move Earth (great earth) and leave Mountain in the original order. This has the advantage that, apart from the special roles of Heaven and Earth, the correspondence between the trigrams and the Five elements, as in the Diagram of the Supreme Polarity, is maintained.
In Figure 11 the dilemma is solved by moving Earth (great earth) between Thunder and Water, so that the wind directions are correct again. This provides an alternative bagua of the natural cycle: the natural bagua.
The sequence of trigrams in this alternative arrangement of the natural cycle is also plotted in Figure 12. The production cycle is depicted with arrows, starting with Heaven as instigator of signals and ending with Earth as receiver.
5. From duograms to trigrams in the cosmic cycle
As we saw in section 2 in origin there was emptiness. The primeval beginning is the Wuji, drawn as a circle. The Taiji generates the two primal forces. These in turn generate the four images of the duograms. Duograms consist of all possible combinations of the two lines yang and yin. The two lines are placed one above the other, the upper place being the heavenly place and the lower place the earth-place. So, man/woman is in-between earth and heaven. Boering (1994) displays the duograms in the cosmic ring, see figure 13. This figure, with monad, the interactions between yin and yang are mapped in a system of axes according to the classical representation.
In the classical Chinese representation, young yang grows into old yang, which culminates and turns into young yin, which in turn grows into old yin, which culminates and turns back into young yang (Boering, 2010). Clockwise we see: old yang (summer), young yin, (autumn), old yin (winter) and young yang (spring). N.B. In his translation of the Book of Changes Wilhelm (2016, p.271) replaces the names for young yin and young yang. He calls - - young yang and the inverted young yin.
The inwards versus outwards orientation and the 'I' versus 'We'-focus are contrasted here, the same axes as in the cosmological model in figure 5 and the same as in Wilber's quadrant system. We now can develop the cosmological model, which was based on the Wuji, further to a cosmological-anthropological model that is based on the Taiji. The two axes divide the system into four quadrants that define four fundamental cosmological-anthropological perspectves: aspiration, behaviour, social and cultural values. Again we see similarities with Wlber's quadrant system. According to Wilber these quadrants are ways of looking at the world. He assumes that the attitude and behaviour of individuals, and the culture of groups and systems in the environment, are all interrelated and that they influence each other. We now will look more closely to the quadrants.
a. From naturality to aspiration values
In the upper left quadrant naturality (self-so) of the cosmological model is now concretized in old yang. Man/woman is closed between heaven and earth. He/she is individual and inwards oriented. He/she is busy with him-/herself, developing insights, making plans, without expressing it. As far as spirituality is concerned, it is oriented at the own person. It stands for subjective feeling and inner of individuals. These include personality traits, intelligence and associated values and value systems. What one experiences from within is internal consciousness. Ot goes about his/her intentions, goals and values he strives for. This is the aspirations quadrant. Wilber calls this quadrant the intentional quadrant. We use that term in a different sense, namely the context of ego- and alter-intentionality of Libbrecht.
b. From rationality to behavioural values
In the upper right quadrant rationality (I think therefor I am) of the cosmological model is concretized in young yin. Man/woman is closed to earth and open to heaven. He/she is individual and outwards oriented. As far as spirituality is concerned, it is directed at the other/environment. Human expressions are open minded and visible. It stands for the 'visible appearance' of an individual, such as observable behaviour and skills. These are objective external descriptions. This is the behavioural quadrant.
c. From morality to social values
In the bottom right quadrant morality (all people will be brothers) of the cosmological model is concretized in old yin. Man/woman is open to both heaven and earth. He/she is collective and outwards directed. Human activities are constantly in contact with the Earth and with Heaven and therefore with the environment. It concerns the 'visible appearance' of the collectivity. This concerns the inter-objective material basis and the external form of collectivity. We can think of the values of the economic base, the (management) systems, the (economic) structures of the society. This is the social quadrant.
d. From mysticism to cultural values
In the lower left quadrant mysticism (“I” is more of an illusion) of the cosmological model is concretized in young yang. Man/woman is closed to heaven but open to earth. He/she is collective inwards oriented. Human activities in this quadrant are earth-oriented and are not disturbed by Heaven. The quadrant represents the intersubjectively shared norms and values of a collective. These are internal opinions / meanings and values that are shared within a community. It concerns the culture, the worldview or the prevailing mutual understanding within a group, organization, sector, region or country. This is the cultural quadrant.
In Chinese philosophy, the doubling of the lines still did not bring sufficient differentiation in the worldview. Therefore a third line was added. That led to the trigrams. The trigrams consist of all possible combinations of three stacked lines, which can be whole or broken. As a result there are eight trigrams. The bottom line is Earth / Body, the middle line is Human / Psyche and the top line is Heaven / Mind. Many ways exist to present the trigrams. Schöter (1998) uses a mathematical principle to display the trigrams. In the general situation we consider a three-dimensional space to get an overview. See figure 14.
From the origin, point D, yang pops up. The faces of the cube that touch the origin are resp. the yang-body (DCGH), yang-psyche (ADHE) and yang-mind (ABCD) planes. The surfaces that do not touch the origin are the yin-body (ABFE), yin-psyche (BCGF) and yin-mind (EFGH) planes
Working in three dimensions is a bit challenging. We can also work in the flat plane and always view two of the three dimensions in an axial system with four quadrants. Because we have 8 trigrams we must move from quadrants to octants. Postulating in each case two diagonal axes can do this. There are then three possibilities:
1. Psyche versus mind
2. Body versus psyche
3. Mind versus body
Ad 1. Psyche versus mind
In the first alternative coordinate system we combine Yang psyche versus Yin psyche and Yang mind versus yin mind. In the cosmic ring we then consider the duograms as consisting of the lines (from below) psyche and mind. We add the bodyline by placing yang and yin in each quadrant in the bottom position (body line). The vertical axis shows the opposition between Yang-Yin-Psyche. With Yang Psyche, man/woman him-/herself is closed and therefore self-centred or egoistic and with Yin-Psyche man/woman him-/herself is open and altruistic. The horizontal axis shows the opposition between Yang-Yin-mind. In the Yang-mind dimension, the duograms are closed from above. When man/woman looks upwards he/she sees the sky closed. If he/she sees the sky closed he is directed inwards. In the Yin-mind dimension, the duograms are open from above. When man/woman looks upwards he/she sees the sky open. If he/she sees the sky open, he/shewill turn outwards towards the environment. He/she is then directed outwards.
In this system the axes are directed inwards versus outward and self-centred/egoistic versus altruistic. We see no further points here and leave it for what it is.
Ad 2. Body versus psyche
The second alternative coordinate system consists of dimensions Yin-Yang (body) on the vertical axis and Yin-Yang-psyche on the horizontal axis. In the cosmic ring we consider the duograms as consisting of the lines (from below) body and psyche. The horizontal axis shows the opposition between Yang-psyche and Yin-psyche, which is already discussed ad 1. The vertical axis shows the opposition between Yang-body and Yin-body. In the Yang-body dimension the duograms are closed from below. When man/woman looks down, he sees the earth closed. If he sees the earth closed, he is alone. He/she is then individually oriented. In the Yin-body dimension, the duograms are open from below. When man/woman looks down he/she sees the earth open. If he/she sees the earth open, he/she will come into contact with others, in search of social contact. He/she is then collectively focused. We add the mind-line by putting yang and yin in the top of each quadrant.
In this system on the horizontal axis we have the opposite polarities egocentrism versus altruism. On the vertical axis we have opposite polarities, individuality and collectivity. See figure 14. In order to switch to octants, we add diagonal axes. One diagonal axis connects the upper left quadrant with the lower right and the other diagonal axis connects the upper right quadrant with the lower left. In the upper left quadrant, man/woman is egocentric and individual, so egoistic. In the upper right quadrant, man/woman is individual and altruistic, so he/she lives in solidarity with his fellow man/woman. In the lower right quadrant, man/woman is altruistic and collective. This is therefore, about collective solidarity. In the lower left quadrant the human being is egoistic and collective. This concerns collective egoism. We recognize here the bagua of Fu Xi, albeit in reverse order, see figure 16.
The trigram arrangement in the coordinate system of figure 16 corresponds to the bagua of Fu Xi. Only the direction is different. If we follow the sequence of the trigrams in a counter clockwise direction, we get exactly the order of Fu Xi. The bagua of Fu Xi is generally known. We will not go further into the Fu Xi package.
Ad 3. Mind versus body
A third coordinate system knows the dimensions of Yang-Yin-mind on the horizontal axis, which is already discussed ad 1 and Yang-Yin-body on the vertical axis, which is already discussed ad 2. In the cosmic ring we consider the duograms as consisting of the lines (from below) body and mind. We add the psyche-line by putting yang and yin in every quadrant in the middle place (human line). This corresponds to a natural expanding of the cormic ring.
We are dealing here with the axes inwards directed versus outwards directed and individuality versus collectivity. These correspond to those of the coordinate system of the original duograms in the cosmic ring of figure 13, where we added the human line in his natural 'middle' place.
The contrast between the upper left and the lower right quadrant is a sharp contrast between the self-emerging or competing person and the person involved or cooperating with the other. On this diagonal axis, the competition or the struggle in the target value quadrant is compared with the cooperative (and harmony, humanity and meeting) in the social quadrant. This diagonal axis thus combines competition with cooperation. The contrast between the upper right and the lower left quadrant is a sharp contradiction between the outward expressive and innovative man/woman and the more conservative man/woman set on traditions, rules and norms. On this second diagonal axis, innovation (and development, creativity and pleasure) in the behavioural quadrant is set against the preservation / controlling (aimed at control and safety, security) in the cultural quadrant. This diagonal axis thus connects innovation with preservation.
6. A new bagua
We will now continue with the quadrant system, where the horizontal axis shows the opposition between Yang-mind and Yin-mind and the vertical axis the opposition between Yang-body and Yin-body.
The axes in figure 18 correspondend to the axes of the cosmological model of energy and pattern we discussed in section 3, to the axes of the cosmic ring in section 5 and also to the axes in the quadrant system of Wilber.
Donkers (2016) used the same quadrant system with accompanying diagonal axes to introduce octants with a view to a connection with Spiral Dynamics, originally developed by Graves (1970) and further popularizd by Beck and Cowan (2006). This has led to a new integration between Wilber's Integral Theory and Spiral Dynamics. This new integration of Wilber's Integral Theory and Spiral Dynamics differs from 'Spiral Dynamics Integral' and differs also from the approach to integrate these models by Cacioppe and Edwards (2005). Spiral Dynamics is focused on societal developments, whereas we are now dealing with cosmological-anthropological developments.
In the octant system we obtain 8 ways to look at the cosmological-anthropological development. This approach leads to a new bagua with special characteristics.
In the first place this bagua follows directly from the cosmic ring when we add the psyche-line by putting yang and yin in every quadrant in the middle – his natural - place (human line).
In the second place, it is noticeable that if we follow the path spiralling from yang-mind to yin-mind we the follow an order with decreasing Yang and increasing Yin. Starting with Heaven, then Wind, Fire, Mountain, Lake, Water, Thunder and finally Earth, we get the trigram sequence corresponding to the production cycle of the Five elements. See figure 19.
Thirdly, we see that if we only look at the trigrams, the pairs of Fire-Water and Lake-Mountain are interchanged, compared to the Fu Xi bagua.
The spiral sequence in figure 18 shows a development process. Heaven indicates a clear path with clear initiatives. The Wind provides some reflection. Fire promises action. It ensures a breakthrough. The Mountain collects information, analyses and searches for a balance. The Lake makes great plans flourish so that success can be achieved. Water brings people together. The Thunder brings strong energy with it in a chaotic quest and contributes to inner development. The Earth stimulates collective peace and progress. In the next discussion of the octants we follow the spiral sequence.
In this octant system and also elsewhere in this paper we have provided the trigrams with colours. In the literature we encounter trigrams in different colours, which often lack a logical basis. We use a simple and logical reasoning here. Yang is always coloured white and Yin black. We leave this as it is. When we then start to give the colour red to Fire in Figure 18, and we choose further the colours of the rainbow in a clockwise direction, then the colours of the other trigrams follow naturally. The warm colours (red, orange, yellow) belong to Yang-body and the cold colours (green, blue, purple) belong to Yin-body. A green colour for water can be a bit surprising, but remember that Water and Fire are contradictory / opposed to each other. From this follows the choice of green for water, the complementary (cold) colour red.
Regarding the introduced colours, we notice the following. In his introduction of octants in Wilber's quadrant system, Donkers (2016) found a fit with the categories of Spiral Dynamics, which are also connected with a colour. Although it is said that the colours of the Spiral Dynamics' categories are chosen randomly, they match, excepted the first (Heaven) and the last (Earth) category, the colours we have chosen above, on a logical basis, for the trigrams in the relevant octants.
Correspondence with production and conquest cycle
The complementary trigrams form two sides of one medal. Heaven - Earth, Fire - Water, Lake - Mountain, Thunder – Wind. The opposite trigrams are not so much to be seen as each other's opposites, but just as each other's complements, each other's polarities. This is in line with the importance of yin and yang at the time of Daoism.
In the octant system of figure 18 we can show both the production cycle and the conquest cycle. See figure 20.
The correlation between production cycle and conquest cycle can thus be represented in the same figure. In the conquest cycle the wood assimilates the earth. The earth absorbs the water. Water extinguishes fire. Fire melts the metal and metal saws the Wood.
Forces of the trigrams
The forces of the trigrams provide the energy to realize the images and shape them. These are the steps in a cyclical process. The energy forces in the cosmos were also studied by Maturana and Varela (1989) and applied to living systems. We think that similar forces work in the cosmos, where man has found a place. Both nature and man can disturb the harmony. A big difference is that people are aware of this with their consciousness. Because the energy from the primeval beginning works in all directions at the same time, the forces of the cosmos are hidden metaphorically in the circles in a water surface, which arise when we throw a stone into the water. We can also compare these forces with the 'levels of development' of Wilber, with the 'stages' of Young and with the 'mind coping capacities' of Graves (1970) / Beck and Cowan (2006). It concerns the steps in a cyclical development process.
In the figure below we show the essence of the images and forces of the trigrams in a general framework combining eastern and western thoughts. Because the forces work in all directions at the same time, we can still incorporate the working of the energy forces into the coordinate system, but then as concentric circles. This keeps the model two-dimensional. In figure 20 we combine these forces with the images, as discussed earlier.
Figure 21 shows the complete picture of the new bagua of the cosmic cycle. This coordinate system not only shows the images (what the trigram is), but also the forces (what the trigram does). In doing so, we must remember that the forces, not only influence their own trigram, but also affect the other trigrams. In addition, the directions of movement of ego- and alter-intentionality and of immanence and transcendence in relation to the energy status are also indicated. Because the basis of this coordinate system lies with the Integral Theory of Wilber we call this system the 'Yijing Integral' or 'YI bagua'.
Images and forces of trigrams
In describing the trigrams in the octants we look at man/woman and his/her social behaviour in the cosmos (a.o. Mesker, 1999, Hamaker-Zondag, 1989, Garofaio, 2013). It shows characteristics of the way people deal with themselves, with others and with the world around them. This is a broader view of reality than the psychological types of Jung, which describe people's preferences, which indicate how someone stands in the world in a certain way.
In the octant inwardly directed aspiration (Heaven), the target values are turned inward. Competition has created unlimited possibilities, new ideas and impulses. However, these are not yet expressed. The trigram that is part of this is the creative and resourceful Heaven. It is pure Yang.
Heaven is the beginning of the creation of all things. It stands for movement, light, brightness, sun and action. This is the mental, the spiritual, that is, the consciousness.
The beginning of Chinese thinking about man/woman, society and cosmos is Inspiration, the awakening of the creative power, with which ideas and initiatives come into being. Inspiration stands for the creative power of the universe. This is about living in harmony with nature and with the spirit of the times.
In the octant inwardly directed culture (Wind), the conservative man/woman is traditional, familial, aimed at pleasing others, sacrificial culture, mythical, interest in symbolism, inherited matters. Preservation stimulates a family culture. The trigram that fits in this octant is the penetrating Wind. It is small (little) yin. Wind is only open to the earth. That is why wind is mainly directed inside. Wind stands for subtle nature, pure and without bad intention. It is about continuous work. The image is grass and wind. The wind does not damage the rooted grass. It is the picture of perseverance and patience. It stands for exchange, communication and attention to details. The imagination is central here. Observing is about orienting and setting small steps. Observation concerns soft and penetrating forces. Wind represents small, stagnant steps. These inherent human forces are the conditions for human action and cultural relationships.
In the octant individual aspiration (Fire), the target values are individually oriented. The thoughts of the individual lead to considerations and choices. People can wonder. Challenged by competition, they search individually for a meaning in their lives. The trigram that is part of this is the Fire focused on insight and attachment. It is clear (bright) Yang and especially individually focused (insight).Fire concerns growth, light, and is looking for altitude, tied to the source. It stands for dependence, attachment and loosening, insight, seeing the truth. Convictions are established here. Thinking has a beginning and an end, visible in the image of burning wood. Thinking is about thoughts, words, ideas and information, in response to wishes or motivations and impulses. Thinking, like dialogue, is not an end in itself, but wants to lead to something. These are intrinsic human values that feed the free will-behaviour of people. These values play a central role in determining which choices members of a culture make: ethical or unethical. What all people want is to determine a meaning in their lives. Meaning or purpose can be formed in different ways. Most people determine their meaning on the basis of spiritual intuitions.
Mountain interprets the principle of stability. Mountain stands for rest, meditation, In the octant collective culture (Mountain) one looks for ways to preserve the culture in the collectivity, among other things by setting rules. The conservative man/woman, who stands with his feet in the world, seeks connection with other people, market culture, instrumental approach, order, mental, performance culture. The trigram that is part of this is the controlling and stable Mountain. It is great yin. Mountain is collectively oriented.and turning inwards, stopping processes. Mountain sets boundaries, makes things concrete and tangible. Stagnation, obstruction, passes, ports, fruits, and seeds aim at planning. The body has a certain shape. You cannot change it, and you must accept it as it is. The motivation is to stay still. Only in the peace of silence, deep sleep or illness, your body can talk to you about his / her motivations. At rest, forces are released to reflect on the process.
In the octant “I”-focused behaviour (Lake) the innovative, but quiet type of person directs the energy to his individual person. Renewal drives him/her away from people, shows introverted behaviour. The trigram of this is the more calm and focused Lake. It is great Yang and especially individual (inner signals) focused. Though Lake also has a tendency to depression, Lake is focused on uplifting, mirror image, and joy. Lake is easy, cheerful, fun. Lake stands for the positive in life, carefree and naivety. Lake also. The image is the pure lake, through which you can look. Here psychic maturity arises. Feelings experience the inner signals, in contrast to the external signals of the senses. Feelings come loose and bring out inner signals, so that creative inspiration can be used for good work. Inner signals are powerful. When under the right circumstances all components of a biological system are present, that system will be 'automatically' formed, will sustain itself and start to grow.
In the octant collective social values (Water) people will seek connections between people. Cooperation make man/woman strive for strong mutual bonding, towards common characteristics, homogeneous. This endeavour is also aimed at being strong against calamity, which may come to him/her. We against the others. The trigram that fits in this octant is the turbulent Water based on family relationships. It is clearly (bright) Yin and more collective (based on relationships) focused. Water is the power that lets itself be guided; smooth movement, danger. It is also a destructive force (danger, risks, threats). Psychological depressions occur, which people can overcome by flowing with them. Water integrates all obstacles in its path. Binding is the central theme here. The soul is between heaven, earth and body, based on the six most important relationships of the family: Mother, Father, Sister, Brother, Daughter, and Son. The soul, like the river, must flow from the well in the mountain to the sea, then be transformed, die, turn into clouds, and eventually be reincarnated as rain in the mountains. Now the stage is reached that the process enters a flow and transformations may be needed to avoid bottlenecks. Mobility is the key word here.
In the octant outward directed behaviour (Thunder) the innovative behaviour is more extraverted. This innovator is focused on the outside world. Renewal directs his/her energy outside and action-oriented. He/she wants to co-create. There is extrovert behaviour. The trigram that comes with this is the powerful acting Thunder. It is small (little) Yang. Thunder stands for intense action. Thunder delivers one-off creativity at full power. Thunder stands for creating the big lines, the rough image. The image is that of thunder and lightning. The total effect here is greater than the effects of the individual actions. That creates synergy. The Spiritual, which is only achieved in the awake state, is always holy spirit. First you experience awe and fear, then laugh, because you understand the game and the rules. In the process dynamic forces go to work that make creative expressions possible. The big story can be presented. Even though the process runs at certain times against certain 'limits', there are always viable new ways of working and thinking, which continually create dynamics.
In the octant outwardly directed social values (Earth) are creating space. Cooperation makes man/woman strive for bridge building. He /she seeks space for diversity. The trigram that belongs to this is the receiving Earth. It is pure Yin. Earth gives space to create. Keywords are: flexibility, speed, and receiver. Earth is the material from which it is made, the tangible, dark, heavy, non-action. The image is the immensity of our planet.
The receptive earth wants to receive the germ and let it grow. Finally, space will be created in which the process will be able to land well and produce fruit. Looking at the distant future is difficult. There is no one who is currently able to answer the question where social development ultimately goes. There are many philosophers who have dealt with this question. A possible and, in itself, plausible explanation would be that the individual consciousness will evolve into a collective consciousness that encompasses all of humanity and the entire universe, a sort of 'terminal' stage.
7. Correspondence of the natural bagua and the cosmic bagua
We can also show the natural and the cosmic cycle in one figure. In Figure 22 we combine the two sequences. For this we place the order of the natural cycle as an outer ring in the coordinate system of the cosmic cycle. The Yang-mind trigrams (excluding Sky) then come parallel to Fire, Heaven and Water in the inner ring. Fire then stands opposite Heaven. Fire, as it were, takes over the role of Heaven.
If we take the spiral sequence of the trigrams in the coordinate system of the cosmic cycle (the inner ring of trigrams in figure 22) we get the Production cycle. With an alternative sequence, we arrive at the conquest cycle.
We present the spiralling sequence, as we did before, in cycle form (the outer ring of trigrams in figure 22). We are starting the natural cycle, as with King Wen, at Thunder.
This is an important figure, because here the connection becomes clear between the wind directions and two bagua, one on the basis of polarities, that is alternative to Fu Xi, and one on the basis of a cycle which is an alternative for king Wen. In both bagua the sequences of the Five elements can be traced.
The outer ring of trigrams is set up in such a way that the sequence of the Five elements, excluding Heaven and Earth, is followed. The wind directions only apply to the outer ring of trigrams.
Figure 23 also shows the relationship between the bagua of King Wen and Fu Xi. The natural cycle in the outer ring of trigrams turns into the bagua of King Wen by interchanging Mountain and Earth. The cosmic cycle in the inner ring of trigrams turns into the baguat of Fu Xi by exchanging the pairs of Fire - Water and Lake – Mountain.
The two most common sequences, the Pre-Worldly Sequence of Fu Xi and the Inner Worldly Sequence of king Wen are arranged independently of each other. The connection between them is therefore not clear. The order of Fu Xi is called pre-worldly, although it is of a younger date than the order of king Wen.
The Yijing Integral Bagua in the coordinate system carries both the characteristic of the cosmic cycle and the characteristic of the natural cycle. The trigrams in the coordinate system of the inner circle of trigrams show the cosmic cycle (like that of Fu Xi), and the spiral sequence of this arrangement show the natural cycle (like that of king Wen). It is possible that this figure basically can function as an alternative to both the sequence of Fu Xi (cosmic cycle) and that of king Wen (natural cycle), whereby the connection between the two can also be indicated. Only if the wind directions and seasons are explicitly discussed do we add the natural cycle (outer ring of trigrams).
8. Arrangement of hexagrams
We have seen that the sequence of trigrams in the YI bagua focus alternately on the individual and on the community. That also applies in a sense to the hexagrams. We combine the images of the trigrams with the forces of the trigrams in a matrix. The images of the trigrams form the basic trigrams of the hexagrams and the forces of the trigrams form the toptrigrams of the hexagrams. There is a relationship between the hexagrams in the rows on one side and the hexagrams in the columns on the other. In the rows the structure of images is created via the sub-images and in the columns the build-up of the forces is effectuated via the sub-forces. So there is a certain interaction between image and power in each hexagram. This leads to an arrangement as in figure 24. Also Dierselhuis (2013) uses a hexagram arrangement like this in his mini-Yijing. Dierselhuis came to this arrangement when he made for himself the idea in what steps he would create the world from the primeval chaos if it were in his ability.
If we look at the rows of the matrix, we see the representations or sub-images. In the Book of Changes these portrayals are discussed under the heading "The Image". They represent all the changes and connections that result. The images are designated to act accordingly. The images show the way. We see alternately a concrete and an abstract image of the hexagrams.
The hexagrams in the columns represent the sub-forces. In the Book of Changes these are discussed under the heading "The Judgment." The judgment contracts the image: salvation or doom, repentance or shame. As a result, people can independently decide to go in a certain direction. It provides a coherent overview of the different life formations and enables man to form his life into an organic whole with his own sovereign will. We see alternately an active and a reflexive force.
In summary, the sub-image in which a hexagram is located is discussed from The Image and the sub-force is discussed from The Judgment. The hexagrams on the rows of the matrix thus alternately display a concrete and an abstract image. Similarly, the hexagrams exhibit an alternating picture of action and reflection in the columns of the matrix.
9. Summary and conclusions
Zhou Dunyi, a thinker of the Northern Song Dynasty, extended the work of Confucius and Mencius into a complete cosmological-metaphysical basis with his Diagram of the Supreme Polarity. We elaborate this Diagram towards a cosmological-anthropological model of cosmic development. The vital energy (qi) and the pattern (li) play a central role in the images (what the trigram is) and forces (what the trigram does) of the trigrams. Heaven and Earth are seen as instigator and recipient respectively of the production cycle. Like in the Diagram of Supreme Polarity, and also in Arthur Youngs 'Reflexive Universe', the unfolding of the universe is understood in two opposite directions. An involutionary-process takes place from Heaven (transcendent, free energy, three dimensional) moving via Wind (two dimensional) and Fire (one dimensional) to Mountain and Lake (immanent, bound energy). From there a process of evolution takes place via Water (one dimensional), Thunder (two dimensional) and finally to Earth (transcendent, free energy, three-dimensional). A cosmological model is developed as a quadrant system with axes inward versus outward orientation and “I”-focused versus 'We”-focused. The model with four basic perspectives: naturality, morality, rationality and mysticism, lead to new bagua relating to the natural and the cosmic cycle.
The natural cycle displays the trigrams in cycle form following the sequence of the Five elements, with Heaven and Earth seen as elements. Our solution is different from the approach of king Wen, who has established the oldest sequence of the trigrams. To keep the wind directions correct we solved the dilemma by moving great earth (Earth) - and not small earth (Mountain) like king Wen did - between Thunder and Water. If we take account of the special character of Heaven and Earth we see exactly the sequence of the Five elements, as in the elaborated Diagram of the Supreme Polarity.
On the basis of the cosmic ring we elaborate a cosmological-anthropological model with perpectives: aspiration, behaviour, social and cultural values. We switch from quadrants to octants by adding diagonal axes. When moving from duograms to trigrams by adding a third line to the duograms in general three quadrant systems arise. First, a quadrant system with dimensions psyche and mind. In this quadrant system we see no further points. Second, a quadrant system with dimensions psyche and body. We recognize the bagua of Fu Xi, albeit in a reverse order. Third, we have, like in the cosmic ring, a quadrant system with dimensions mind on the vertical axis and body on the horizontal axis. Compared to the bagua of Fu Xi the trigram pairs Fire-Water and Lake-Mountain are interchanged.
This third variant has special features. In the first place it follows directly from the cosmic ring when we add the psyche-line in the duograms by putting yang and yin on every quadrant in the middle (human) place. In the second place, this variant corresponds to the coordinate system of the abovementioned cosmological-anthropological model. In the third place, if we follow the path spiralling, like in 'Spiral Dynamics', starting with Heaven, then Wind, Fire, Mountain, Lake, Water, Thunder and finally Earth, we get the sequence of the images of trigrams corresponding to the production cycle of the Five elements. The correlation between production cycle and conquest cycle is represented in the same octant system. Apart from the images of the trigrams we incorporate the forces of the trigrams in the same coordinate system as concentric circles, because the forces work in all directions at the same time. The complete picture of the new bagua shows the images and the forces in one coordinate system. In addition, the directions of movement of ego- and alter-intentionality and of immanence and transcendence are also indicated. Because the coordinate system corresponds to the Integral Theory of Wilber and there also is a relationship with Spiral Dynamics we call this system the 'Yijing Integral' or 'Yi bagua'.
The natural and cosmic cycle are also displayed in one figure, by placing the sequence of the natural cycle as an outer ring in the coordinate system of the cosmic cycle. Both the natural and the cosmic cycle (in spiral form) show the sequence of the five elements. The natural cycle in the outer ring turns into the bagua of king Wen by interchanging Mountain and Earth. The cosmic cycle in the inner ring turns into the bagua of Fu Xi by interchanging the pairs of Fire - Water and Lake – Mountain.
In the hexagrams the images of the trigrams and the forces of the trigrams are combined in a matrix. The sequence of trigrams in the YI bagua focuses alternately on the individual and on the community. That also applies in a sense to the hexagrams. The hexagrams on the rows of the matrix alternatively display a concrete and an abstract image. Similarly, in the columns of the matrix the hexagrams exhibit an alternating picture of action and reflection. In the Book of Changes the sub-images of a hexagrams are discussed from 'The Image' and the sub-forces are discussed from 'The Judgment'.
The author thanks Marcel Dierselhuis, Ruud Nederveen and Clive Cornford for their valuable comments on an earlier draft of this paper.
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